Andrea Vedaldi

Andrea Vedaldi
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Andrea Vedaldi

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Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (37)
Computer Science - Learning (8)
Statistics - Machine Learning (4)
Computer Science - Neural and Evolutionary Computing (3)
Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence (2)
Computer Science - Mathematical Software (1)

Publications Authored By Andrea Vedaldi

The Correlation Filter is an algorithm that trains a linear template to discriminate between images and their translations. It is well suited to object tracking because its formulation in the Fourier domain provides a fast solution, enabling the detector to be re-trained once per frame. Previous works that use the Correlation Filter, however, have adopted features that were either manually designed or trained for a different task. Read More

In this paper, we propose a novel benchmark for evaluating local image descriptors. We demonstrate that the existing datasets and evaluation protocols do not specify unambiguously all aspects of evaluation, leading to ambiguities and inconsistencies in results reported in the literature. Furthermore, these datasets are nearly saturated due to the recent improvements in local descriptors obtained by learning them from large annotated datasets. Read More

Despite significant progress of deep learning in recent years, state-of-the-art semantic matching methods still rely on legacy features such as SIFT or HoG. We argue that the strong invariance properties that are key to the success of recent deep architectures on the classification task make them unfit for dense correspondence tasks, unless a large amount of supervision is used. In this work, we propose a deep network, termed AnchorNet, that produces image representations that are well-suited for semantic matching. Read More

As machine learning algorithms are increasingly applied to high impact yet high risk tasks, e.g. problems in health, it is critical that researchers can explain how such algorithms arrived at their predictions. Read More

We present a new autoencoder-type architecture, that is trainable in an unsupervised mode, sustains both generation and inference, and has the quality of conditional and unconditional samples boosted by adversarial learning. Unlike previous hybrids of autoencoders and adversarial networks, the adversarial game in our approach is set up directly between the encoder and the generator, and no external mappings are trained in the process of learning. The game objective compares the divergences of each of the real and the generated data distributions with the canonical distribution in the latent space. Read More

Evolution has resulted in highly developed abilities in many natural intelligences to quickly and accurately predict mechanical phenomena. Humans have successfully developed laws of physics to abstract and model such mechanical phenomena. In the context of artificial intelligence, a recent line of work has focused on estimating physical parameters based on sensory data and use them in physical simulators to make long-term predictions. Read More

With the advent of large labelled datasets and high-capacity models, the performance of machine vision systems has been improving rapidly. However, the technology has still major limitations, starting from the fact that different vision problems are still solved by different models, trained from scratch or fine-tuned on the target data. The human visual system, in stark contrast, learns a universal representation for vision in the early life of an individual. Read More

The recent work of Gatys et al., who characterized the style of an image by the statistics of convolutional neural network filters, ignited a renewed interest in the texture generation and image stylization problems. While their image generation technique uses a slow optimization process, recently several authors have proposed to learn generator neural networks that can produce similar outputs in one quick forward pass. Read More

We introduce the concept of "dynamic image", a novel compact representation of videos useful for video analysis especially when convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are used. The dynamic image is based on the rank pooling concept and is obtained through the parameters of a ranking machine that encodes the temporal evolution of the frames of the video. Dynamic images are obtained by directly applying rank pooling on the raw image pixels of a video producing a single RGB image per video. Read More

Differently from computer vision systems which require explicit supervision, humans can learn facial expressions by observing people in their environment. In this paper, we look at how similar capabilities could be developed in machine vision. As a starting point, we consider the problem of relating facial expressions to objectively measurable events occurring in videos. Read More

Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are extremely efficient, since they exploit the inherent translation-invariance of natural images. However, translation is just one of a myriad of useful spatial transformations. Can the same efficiency be attained when considering other spatial invariances? Such generalized convolutions have been considered in the past, but at a high computational cost. Read More

Deep Matching (DM) is a popular high-quality method for quasi-dense image matching. Despite its name, however, the original DM formulation does not yield a deep neural network that can be trained end-to-end via backpropagation. In this paper, we remove this limitation by rewriting the complete DM algorithm as a convolutional neural network. Read More

While recent research in image understanding has often focused on recognizing more types of objects, understanding more about the objects is just as important. Recognizing object parts and attributes has been extensively studied before, yet learning large space of such concepts remains elusive due to the high cost of providing detailed object annotations for supervision. The key contribution of this paper is an algorithm to learn the nameable parts of objects automatically, from images obtained by querying Web search engines. Read More

The problem of arbitrary object tracking has traditionally been tackled by learning a model of the object's appearance exclusively online, using as sole training data the video itself. Despite the success of these methods, their online-only approach inherently limits the richness of the model they can learn. Recently, several attempts have been made to exploit the expressive power of deep convolutional networks. Read More

One-shot learning is usually tackled by using generative models or discriminative embeddings. Discriminative methods based on deep learning, which are very effective in other learning scenarios, are ill-suited for one-shot learning as they need large amounts of training data. In this paper, we propose a method to learn the parameters of a deep model in one shot. Read More

Modern discriminative predictors have been shown to match natural intelligences in specific perceptual tasks in image classification, object and part detection, boundary extraction, etc. However, a major advantage that natural intelligences still have is that they work well for "all" perceptual problems together, solving them efficiently and coherently in an "integrated manner". In order to capture some of these advantages in machine perception, we ask two questions: whether deep neural networks can learn universal image representations, useful not only for a single task but for all of them, and how the solutions to the different tasks can be integrated in this framework. Read More

Local covariant feature detection, namely the problem of extracting viewpoint invariant features from images, has so far largely resisted the application of machine learning techniques. In this paper, we propose the first fully general formulation for learning local covariant feature detectors. We propose to cast detection as a regression problem, enabling the use of powerful regressors such as deep neural networks. Read More

In this paper we introduce a new method for text detection in natural images. The method comprises two contributions: First, a fast and scalable engine to generate synthetic images of text in clutter. This engine overlays synthetic text to existing background images in a natural way, accounting for the local 3D scene geometry. Read More

Gatys et al. recently demonstrated that deep networks can generate beautiful textures and stylized images from a single texture example. However, their methods requires a slow and memory-consuming optimization process. Read More

Image representations, from SIFT and bag of visual words to Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are a crucial component of almost all computer vision systems. However, our understanding of them remains limited. In this paper we study several landmark representations, both shallow and deep, by a number of complementary visualization techniques. Read More

Weakly supervised learning of object detection is an important problem in image understanding that still does not have a satisfactory solution. In this paper, we address this problem by exploiting the power of deep convolutional neural networks pre-trained on large-scale image-level classification tasks. We propose a weakly supervised deep detection architecture that modifies one such network to operate at the level of image regions, performing simultaneously region selection and classification. Read More

Visual textures have played a key role in image understanding because they convey important semantics of images, and because texture representations that pool local image descriptors in an orderless manner have had a tremendous impact in diverse applications. In this paper we make several contributions to texture understanding. First, instead of focusing on texture instance and material category recognition, we propose a human-interpretable vocabulary of texture attributes to describe common texture patterns, complemented by a new describable texture dataset for benchmarking. Read More

Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have had a major impact in most areas of image understanding, including object category detection. In object detection, methods such as R-CNN have obtained excellent results by integrating CNNs with region proposal generation algorithms such as selective search. In this paper, we investigate the role of proposal generation in CNN-based detectors in order to determine whether it is a necessary modelling component, carrying essential geometric information not contained in the CNN, or whether it is merely a way of accelerating detection. Read More

Fisher Vectors and related orderless visual statistics have demonstrated excellent performance in object detection, sometimes superior to established approaches such as the Deformable Part Models. However, it remains unclear how these models can capture complex appearance variations using visual codebooks of limited sizes and coarse geometric information. In this work, we propose to interpret Fisher-Vector-based object detectors as part-based models. Read More

Part-based representations have been shown to be very useful for image classification. Learning part-based models is often viewed as a two-stage problem. First, a collection of informative parts is discovered, using heuristics that promote part distinctiveness and diversity, and then classifiers are trained on the vector of part responses. Read More

We develop a representation suitable for the unconstrained recognition of words in natural images: the general case of no fixed lexicon and unknown length. To this end we propose a convolutional neural network (CNN) based architecture which incorporates a Conditional Random Field (CRF) graphical model, taking the whole word image as a single input. The unaries of the CRF are provided by a CNN that predicts characters at each position of the output, while higher order terms are provided by another CNN that detects the presence of N-grams. Read More

MatConvNet is an implementation of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) for MATLAB. The toolbox is designed with an emphasis on simplicity and flexibility. It exposes the building blocks of CNNs as easy-to-use MATLAB functions, providing routines for computing linear convolutions with filter banks, feature pooling, and many more. Read More

In this work we present an end-to-end system for text spotting -- localising and recognising text in natural scene images -- and text based image retrieval. This system is based on a region proposal mechanism for detection and deep convolutional neural networks for recognition. Our pipeline uses a novel combination of complementary proposal generation techniques to ensure high recall, and a fast subsequent filtering stage for improving precision. Read More

Image representations, from SIFT and Bag of Visual Words to Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), are a crucial component of almost any image understanding system. Nevertheless, our understanding of them remains limited. In this paper we conduct a direct analysis of the visual information contained in representations by asking the following question: given an encoding of an image, to which extent is it possible to reconstruct the image itself? To answer this question we contribute a general framework to invert representations. Read More

Research in texture recognition often concentrates on the problem of material recognition in uncluttered conditions, an assumption rarely met by applications. In this work we conduct a first study of material and describable texture at- tributes recognition in clutter, using a new dataset derived from the OpenSurface texture repository. Motivated by the challenge posed by this problem, we propose a new texture descriptor, D-CNN, obtained by Fisher Vector pooling of a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) filter bank. Read More

Despite the importance of image representations such as histograms of oriented gradients and deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), our theoretical understanding of them remains limited. Aiming at filling this gap, we investigate three key mathematical properties of representations: equivariance, invariance, and equivalence. Equivariance studies how transformations of the input image are encoded by the representation, invariance being a special case where a transformation has no effect. Read More

In this work we present a framework for the recognition of natural scene text. Our framework does not require any human-labelled data, and performs word recognition on the whole image holistically, departing from the character based recognition systems of the past. The deep neural network models at the centre of this framework are trained solely on data produced by a synthetic text generation engine -- synthetic data that is highly realistic and sufficient to replace real data, giving us infinite amounts of training data. Read More

The focus of this paper is speeding up the evaluation of convolutional neural networks. While delivering impressive results across a range of computer vision and machine learning tasks, these networks are computationally demanding, limiting their deployability. Convolutional layers generally consume the bulk of the processing time, and so in this work we present two simple schemes for drastically speeding up these layers. Read More

The latest generation of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have achieved impressive results in challenging benchmarks on image recognition and object detection, significantly raising the interest of the community in these methods. Nevertheless, it is still unclear how different CNN methods compare with each other and with previous state-of-the-art shallow representations such as the Bag-of-Visual-Words and the Improved Fisher Vector. This paper conducts a rigorous evaluation of these new techniques, exploring different deep architectures and comparing them on a common ground, identifying and disclosing important implementation details. Read More

This paper addresses the visualisation of image classification models, learnt using deep Convolutional Networks (ConvNets). We consider two visualisation techniques, based on computing the gradient of the class score with respect to the input image. The first one generates an image, which maximises the class score [Erhan et al. Read More

Patterns and textures are defining characteristics of many natural objects: a shirt can be striped, the wings of a butterfly can be veined, and the skin of an animal can be scaly. Aiming at supporting this analytical dimension in image understanding, we address the challenging problem of describing textures with semantic attributes. We identify a rich vocabulary of forty-seven texture terms and use them to describe a large dataset of patterns collected in the wild. Read More

This paper introduces FGVC-Aircraft, a new dataset containing 10,000 images of aircraft spanning 100 aircraft models, organised in a three-level hierarchy. At the finer level, differences between models are often subtle but always visually measurable, making visual recognition challenging but possible. A benchmark is obtained by defining corresponding classification tasks and evaluation protocols, and baseline results are presented. Read More