Andrea Merloni - Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, Giessenbachstr. D-85741 Garching, Germany

Andrea Merloni
Are you Andrea Merloni?

Claim your profile, edit publications, add additional information:

Contact Details

Name
Andrea Merloni
Affiliation
Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, Giessenbachstr. D-85741 Garching, Germany
City
Garching
Country
Germany

Pubs By Year

External Links

Pub Categories

 
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (22)
 
Astrophysics of Galaxies (17)
 
Astrophysics (15)
 
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (11)
 
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (4)
 
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (2)
 
Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (1)

Publications Authored By Andrea Merloni

The supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) and stellar-mass black holes in X-ray binaries (XRBs) are believed to work in a similar way. While XRBs evolve rapidly and several sources have undergone a few complete cycles from quiescence to an outburst and back, most AGN remain in the same state over periods of decades, due to their longer characteristic timescale proportional to their size. However, the study of the AGN spectral states is still possible with a large sample of sources. Read More

2017Feb
Authors: Michael R. Blanton, Matthew A. Bershady, Bela Abolfathi, Franco D. Albareti, Carlos Allende Prieto, Andres Almeida, Javier Alonso-García, Friedrich Anders, Scott F. Anderson, Brett Andrews, Erik Aquino-Ortíz, Alfonso Aragón-Salamanca, Maria Argudo-Fernández, Eric Armengaud, Eric Aubourg, Vladimir Avila-Reese, Carles Badenes, Stephen Bailey, Kathleen A. Barger, Jorge Barrera-Ballesteros, Curtis Bartosz, Dominic Bates, Falk Baumgarten, Julian Bautista, Rachael Beaton, Timothy C. Beers, Francesco Belfiore, Chad F. Bender, Andreas A. Berlind, Mariangela Bernardi, Florian Beutler, Jonathan C. Bird, Dmitry Bizyaev, Guillermo A. Blanc, Michael Blomqvist, Adam S. Bolton, Médéric Boquien, Jura Borissova, Remco van den Bosch, Jo Bovy, William N. Brandt, Jonathan Brinkmann, Joel R. Brownstein, Kevin Bundy, Adam J. Burgasser, Etienne Burtin, Nicolás G. Busca, Michele Cappellari, Maria Leticia Delgado Carigi, Joleen K. Carlberg, Aurelio Carnero Rosell, Ricardo Carrera, Brian Cherinka, Edmond Cheung, Yilen Gómez Maqueo Chew, Cristina Chiappini, Peter Doohyun Choi, Drew Chojnowski, Chia-Hsun Chuang, Haeun Chung, Rafael Fernando Cirolini, Nicolas Clerc, Roger E. Cohen, Johan Comparat, Luiz da Costa, Marie-Claude Cousinou, Kevin Covey, Jeffrey D. Crane, Rupert A. C. Croft, Irene Cruz-Gonzalez, Daniel Garrido Cuadra, Katia Cunha, Guillermo J. Damke, Jeremy Darling, Roger Davies, Kyle Dawson, Axel de la Macorra, Nathan De Lee, Timothée Delubac, Francesco Di Mille, Aleks Diamond-Stanic, Mariana Cano-Díaz, John Donor, Juan José Downes, Niv Drory, Hélion du Mas des Bourboux, Christopher J. Duckworth, Tom Dwelly, Jamie Dyer, Garrett Ebelke, Daniel J. Eisenstein, Eric Emsellem, Mike Eracleous, Stephanie Escoffier, Michael L. Evans, Xiaohui Fan, Emma Fernández-Alvar, J. G. Fernandez-Trincado, Diane K. Feuillet, Alexis Finoguenov, Scott W. Fleming, Andreu Font-Ribera, Alexander Fredrickson, Gordon Freischlad, Peter M. Frinchaboy, Lluís Galbany, R. Garcia-Dias, D. A. García-Hernández, Patrick Gaulme, Doug Geisler, Joseph D. Gelfand, Héctor Gil-Marín, Bruce A. Gillespie, Daniel Goddard, Violeta Gonzalez-Perez, Kathleen Grabowski, Paul J. Green, Catherine J. Grier, James E. Gunn, Hong Guo, Julien Guy, Alex Hagen, ChangHoon Hahn, Matthew Hall, Paul Harding, Sten Hasselquist, Suzanne L. Hawley, Fred Hearty, Jonay I. Gonzalez Hernández, Shirley Ho, David W. Hogg, Kelly Holley-Bockelmann, Jon A. Holtzman, Parker H. Holzer, Joseph Huehnerhoff, Timothy A. Hutchinson, Ho Seong Hwang, Héctor J. Ibarra-Medel, Gabriele da Silva Ilha, Inese I. Ivans, KeShawn Ivory, Kelly Jackson, Trey W. Jensen, Jennifer A. Johnson, Amy Jones, Henrik Jönsson, Eric Jullo, Vikrant Kamble, Karen Kinemuchi, David Kirkby, Francisco-Shu Kitaura, Mark Klaene, Gillian R. Knapp, Jean-Paul Kneib, Juna A. Kollmeier, Ivan Lacerna, Richard R. Lane, Dustin Lang, David R. Law, Daniel Lazarz, Jean-Marc Le Goff, Fu-Heng Liang, Cheng Li, Hongyu LI, Marcos Lima, Lihwai Lin, Yen-Ting Lin, Sara Bertran de Lis, Chao Liu, Miguel Angel C. de Icaza Lizaola, Dan Long, Sara Lucatello, Britt Lundgren, Nicholas K. MacDonald, Alice Deconto Machado, Chelsea L. MacLeod, Suvrath Mahadevan, Marcio Antonio Geimba Maia, Roberto Maiolino, Steven R. Majewski, Elena Malanushenko, Viktor Malanushenko, Arturo Manchado, Shude Mao, Claudia Maraston, Rui Marques-Chaves, Karen L. Masters, Cameron K. McBride, Richard M. McDermid, Brianne McGrath, Ian D. McGreer, Nicolás Medina Peña, Matthew Melendez, Andrea Merloni, Michael R. Merrifield, Szabolcs Meszaros, Andres Meza, Ivan Minchev, Dante Minniti, Takamitsu Miyaji, Surhud More, John Mulchaey, Francisco Müller-Sánchez, Demitri Muna, Ricardo R. Munoz, Adam D. Myers, Preethi Nair, Kirpal Nandra, Janaina Correa do Nascimento, Alenka Negrete, Melissa Ness, Jeffrey A. Newman, Robert C. Nichol, David L. Nidever, Christian Nitschelm, Pierros Ntelis, Julia E. O'Connell, Ryan J. Oelkers, Audrey Oravetz, Daniel Oravetz, Zach Pace, Nelson Padilla, Nathalie Palanque-Delabrouille, Pedro Alonso Palicio, Kaike Pan, Taniya Parikh, Isabelle Pâris, Changbom Park, Alim Y. Patten, Sebastien Peirani, Marcos Pellejero-Ibanez, Samantha Penny, Will J. Percival, Ismael Perez-Fournon, Patrick Petitjean, Matthew M. Pieri, Marc Pinsonneault, Alice Pisani, Radosław Poleski, Francisco Prada, Abhishek Prakash, Anna Bárbara de Andrade Queiroz, M. Jordan Raddick, Anand Raichoor, Sandro Barboza Rembold, Hannah Richstein, Rogemar A. Riffel, Rogério Riffel, Hans-Walter Rix, Annie C. Robin, Constance M. Rockosi, Sergio Rodríguez-Torres, A. Roman-Lopes, Carlos Román-Zúñiga, Margarita Rosado, Ashley J. Ross, Graziano Rossi, John Ruan, Rossana Ruggeri, Eli S. Rykoff, Salvador Salazar-Albornoz, Mara Salvato, Ariel G. Sánchez, David Sánchez Aguado, José R. Sánchez-Gallego, Felipe A. Santana, Basílio Xavier Santiago, Conor Sayres, Ricardo P. Schiavon, Jaderson da Silva Schimoia, Edward F. Schlafly, David J. Schlegel, Donald P. Schneider, Mathias Schultheis, William J. Schuster, Axel Schwope, Hee-Jong Seo, Zhengyi Shao, Shiyin Shen, Matthew Shetrone, Michael Shull, Joshua D. Simon, Danielle Skinner, M. F. Skrutskie, Anže Slosar, Verne V. Smith, Jennifer S. Sobeck, Flavia Sobreira, Garrett Somers, Diogo Souto, David V. Stark, Keivan Stassun, Fritz Stauffer, Matthias Steinmetz, Thaisa Storchi-Bergmann, Alina Streblyanska, Guy S. Stringfellow, Genaro Suárez, Jing Sun, Nao Suzuki, Laszlo Szigeti, Manuchehr Taghizadeh-Popp, Baitian Tang, Charling Tao, Jamie Tayar, Mita Tembe, Johanna Teske, Aniruddha R. Thakar, Daniel Thomas, Benjamin A. Thompson, Jeremy L. Tinker, Patricia Tissera, Rita Tojeiro, Hector Hernandez Toledo, Sylvain de la Torre, Christy Tremonti, Nicholas W. Troup, Octavio Valenzuela, Inma Martinez Valpuesta, Jaime Vargas-González, Mariana Vargas-Magaña, Jose Alberto Vazquez, Sandro Villanova, M. Vivek, Nicole Vogt, David Wake, Rene Walterbos, Yuting Wang, Benjamin Alan Weaver, Anne-Marie Weijmans, David H. Weinberg, Kyle B. Westfall, David G. Whelan, Vivienne Wild, John Wilson, W. M. Wood-Vasey, Dominika Wylezalek, Ting Xiao, Renbin Yan, Meng Yang, Jason E. Ybarra, Christophe Yèche, Nadia Zakamska, Olga Zamora, Pauline Zarrouk, Gail Zasowski, Kai Zhang, Gong-Bo Zhao, Zheng Zheng, Zhi-Min Zhou, Guangtun B. Zhu, Manuela Zoccali, Hu Zou

We describe the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV), a project encompassing three major spectroscopic programs. The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment 2 (APOGEE-2) is observing hundreds of thousands of Milky Way stars at high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio in the near-infrared. The Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey is obtaining spatially-resolved spectroscopy for thousands of nearby galaxies (median redshift of z = 0. Read More

We report on the diversity in quasar spectra from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. After filtering the spectra to mitigate selection effects and Malmquist bias associated with a nearly flux-limited sample, we create high signal-to-noise ratio composite spectra from 58,656 quasars (2.1 \le z \le 3. Read More

SPIDERS (The SPectroscopic IDentification of eROSITA Sources) is a program dedicated to the homogeneous and complete spectroscopic follow-up of X-ray AGN and galaxy clusters over a large area ($\sim$7500 deg$^2$) of the extragalactic sky. SPIDERS is part of the SDSS-IV project, together with the Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) and the Time-Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS). This paper describes the largest project within SPIDERS before the launch of eROSITA: an optical spectroscopic survey of X-ray selected, massive ($\sim 10^{14}$ to $10^{15}~M_{\odot}$) galaxy clusters discovered in ROSAT and XMM-Newton imaging. Read More

We present the X-ray luminosity (L) versus dynamical mass (M) relation for 63 nearby clusters in the HIFLUGCS. The luminosity measurements are obtained based on ~1.3 Ms of clean XMM data and ROSAT pointed observations. Read More

2016Aug
Authors: SDSS Collaboration, Franco D. Albareti, Carlos Allende Prieto, Andres Almeida, Friedrich Anders, Scott Anderson, Brett H. Andrews, Alfonso Aragon-Salamanca, Maria Argudo-Fernandez, Eric Armengaud, Eric Aubourg, Vladimir Avila-Reese, Carles Badenes, Stephen Bailey, Beatriz Barbuy, Kat Barger, Jorge Barrera-Ballesteros, Curtis Bartosz, Sarbani Basu, Dominic Bates, Giuseppina Battaglia, Falk Baumgarten, Julien Baur, Julian Bautista, Timothy C. Beers, Francesco Belfiore, Matthew Bershady, Sara Bertran de Lis, Jonathan C. Bird, Dmitry Bizyaev, Guillermo A. Blanc, Michael Blanton, Michael Blomqvist, Adam S. Bolton, J. Borissova, Jo Bovy, William Nielsen Brandt, Jonathan Brinkmann, Joel R. Brownstein, Kevin Bundy, Etienne Burtin, Nicolas G. Busca, Hugo Orlando Camacho Chavez, M. Cano Diaz, Michele Cappellari, Ricardo Carrera, Yanping Chen, Brian Cherinka, Edmond Cheung, Cristina Chiappini, Drew Chojnowski, Chia-Hsun Chuang, Haeun Chung, Rafael Fernando Cirolini, Nicolas Clerc, Roger E. Cohen, Julia M. Comerford, Johan Comparat, Marie-Claude Cousinou, Kevin Covey, Jeffrey D. Crane, Rupert Croft, Katia Cunha, Luiz da Costa, Gabriele da Silva Ilha, Jeremy Darling, James W. Davidson Jr., Kyle Dawson, Nathan De Lee, Axel de la Macorra, Sylvain de la Torre, Alice Deconto Machado, Timothee Delubac, Aleksandar M. Diamond-Stanic, John Donor, Juan Jose Downes, Niv Drory, Helion du Mas des Bourboux, Cheng Du, Tom Dwelly, Garrett Ebelke, Arthur Eigenbrot, Daniel J. Eisenstein, Yvonne P. Elsworth, Eric Emsellem, Michael Eracleous, Stephanie Escoffier, Michael L. Evans, Jesus Falcon-Barroso, Xiaohui Fan, Ginevra Favole, Emma Fernandez-Alvar, J. G. Fernandez-Trincado, Diane Feuillet, Scott W. Fleming, Andreu Font-Ribera, Gordon Freischlad, Peter Frinchaboy, Hai Fu, Yang Gao, D. A. Garcia-Hernandez, Ana E. Garcia Perez, Rafael A. Garcia, R. Garcia-Dias, Patrick Gaulme, Junqiang Ge, Douglas Geisler, Hector Gil Marin, Bruce Gillespie, Leo Girardi, Daniel Goddard, Yilen Gomez Maqueo Chew, Violeta Gonzalez-Perez, Kathleen Grabowski, Paul Green, Catherine J. Grier, Thomas Grier, Hong Guo, Julien Guy, Alex Hagen, Matt Hall, Paul Harding, R. E. Harley, Sten Hasselquist, Suzanne Hawley, Christian R. Hayes, Fred Hearty, Saskia Hekker, Hector Hernandez Toledo, Shirley Ho, David W. Hogg, Kelly Holley-Bockelmann, Jon A. Holtzman, Parker H. Holzer, Jian Hu, Daniel Huber, Timothy Alan Hutchinson, Ho Seong Hwang, Hector J. Ibarra-Medel, Inese I. Ivans, KeShawn Ivory, Kurt Jaehnig, Trey W. Jensen, Jennifer A. Johnson, Amy Jones, Eric Jullo, T. Kallinger, Karen Kinemuchi, David Kirkby, Mark Klaene, Jean-Paul Kneib, Juna A. Kollmeier, Ivan Lacerna, Richard R. Lane, Dustin Lang, Pierre Laurent, David R. Law, Jean-Marc Le Goff, Alexie Leauthaud, Cheng Li, Ran Li, Chen Li, Niu Li, Fu-Heng Liang, Yu Liang, Marcos Lima, Lihwai Lin, Lin Lin, Yen-Ting Lin, Dan Long, Sara Lucatello, Nicholas MacDonald, Chelsea L. MacLeod, J. Ted Mackereth, Suvrath Mahadevan, Marcio Antonio-Geimba Maia, Roberto Maiolino, Steven R. Majewski, Olena Malanushenko, Nicolas Dullius Mallmann, Arturo Manchado, Claudia Maraston, Rui Marques-Chaves, Inma Martinez Valpuesta, Karen L. Masters, Savita Mathur, Ian D. McGreer, Andrea Merloni, Michael R. Merrifield, Szabolcs Meszaros, Andres Meza, Andrea Miglio, Ivan Minchev, Karan Molaverdikhani, Antonio D. Montero-Dorta, Benoit Mosser, Demitri Muna, Adam Myers, Preethi Nair, Kirpal Nandra, Melissa Ness, Jeffrey A. Newman, Robert C. Nichol, David L. Nidever, Christian Nitschelm, Julia O'Connell, Audrey Oravetz, Nelson Padilla, Nathalie Palanque-Delabrouille, Kaike Pan, John Parejko, Isabelle Paris, John A. Peacock, Sebastien Peirani, Marcos Pellejero-Ibanez, Samantha Penny, Will J. Percival, Jeffrey W. Percival, Ismael Perez-Fournon, Patrick Petitjean, Matthew Pieri, Marc H. Pinsonneault, Alice Pisani, Francisco Prada, Abhishek Prakash, Natalie Price-Jones, M. Jordan Raddick, Mubdi Rahman, Anand Raichoor, Sandro Barboza Rembold, A. M. Reyna, James Rich, Hannah Richstein, Jethro Ridl, Rogerio Riffel, Rogemar A. Riffel, Hans-Walter Rix, Annie C. Robin, Constance M. Rockosi, Sergio Rodriguez-Torres, Thaise S. Rodrigues, Natalie Roe, A. Roman Lopes, Carlos Roman-Zuniga, Ashley J. Ross, Graziano Rossi, John Ruan, Rossana Ruggeri, Jessie C. Runnoe, Salvador Salazar-Albornoz, Mara Salvato, Ariel G. Sanchez, Sebastian F. Sanchez, Jose R. Sanchez-Gallego, Basilio Xavier Santiago, Ricardo Schiavon, Jaderson S. Schimoia, Eddie Schlafly, David J. Schlegel, Donald P. Schneider, Ralph Schoenrich, Mathias Schultheis, Axel Schwope, Hee-Jong Seo, Aldo Serenelli, Branimir Sesar, Zhengyi Shao, Matthew Shetrone, Michael Shull, Victor Silva Aguirre, M. F. Skrutskie, Anže Slosar, Michael Smith, Verne V. Smith, Jennifer Sobeck, Garrett Somers, Diogo Souto, David V. Stark, Keivan G. Stassun, Matthias Steinmetz, Dennis Stello, Thaisa Storchi Bergmann, Michael A. Strauss, Alina Streblyanska, Guy S. Stringfellow, Genaro Suarez, Jing Sun, Manuchehr Taghizadeh-Popp, Baitian Tang, Charling Tao, Jamie Tayar, Mita Tembe, Daniel Thomas, Jeremy Tinker, Rita Tojeiro, Christy Tremonti, Nicholas Troup, Jonathan R. Trump, Eduardo Unda-Sanzana, O. Valenzuela, Remco van den Bosch, Mariana Vargas-Magana, Jose Alberto Vazquez, Sandro Villanova, M. Vivek, Nicole Vogt, David Wake, Rene Walterbos, Yuting Wang, Enci Wang, Benjamin Alan Weaver, Anne-Marie Weijmans, David H. Weinberg, Kyle B. Westfall, David G. Whelan, Eric Wilcots, Vivienne Wild, Rob A. Williams, John Wilson, W. M. Wood-Vasey, Dominika Wylezalek, Ting Xiao, Renbin Yan, Meng Yang, Jason E. Ybarra, Christophe Yeche, Fang-Ting Yuan, Nadia Zakamska, Olga Zamora, Gail Zasowski, Kai Zhang, Cheng Zhao, Gong-Bo Zhao, Zheng Zheng, Zheng Zheng, Zhi-Min Zhou, Guangtun Zhu, Joel C. Zinn, Hu Zou

The fourth generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) began observations in July 2014. It pursues three core programs: APOGEE-2, MaNGA, and eBOSS. In addition, eBOSS contains two major subprograms: TDSS and SPIDERS. Read More

The Wide Field Imager (WFI) is one of two instruments for the Advanced Telescope for High-ENergy Astrophysics (Athena). In this paper we summarise three of the many key science objectives for the WFI - the formation and growth of supermassive black holes, non-gravitational heating in clusters of galaxies, and spin measurements of stellar mass black holes - and describe their translation into the science requirements and ultimately instrument requirements. The WFI will be designed to provide excellent point source sensitivity and grasp for performing wide area surveys, surface brightness sensitivity, survey power, and absolute temperature and density calibration for in-depth studies of the outskirts of nearby clusters of galaxies and very good high-count rate capability, throughput, and low pile-up, paired with very good spectral resolution, for detailed explorations of bright Galactic compact objects. Read More

In this paper we describe and publicly release a catalogue consisting of 8445 point-like X-ray sources detected in the XMM-XXL north survey. For the 2512 AGN which have reliable spectroscopy, we present the X-ray spectral fitting which has been computed with a Bayesian approach. We have also applied an X-ray spectral stacking method to different sub-samples. Read More

This paper presents a survey of X-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) with optical spectroscopic follow-up in a $\sim 18\, \rm{deg^2}$ area of the equatorial XMM-XXL north field. A sample of 8445 point-like X-ray sources detected by XMM-Newton above a limiting flux of $F_{\rm 0.5-10\, keV} > 10^{-15} \rm\,erg\, cm^{-2}\, s^{-1}$ was matched to optical (SDSS) and infrared (WISE) counterparts. Read More

Capitalizing on the all-sky coverage of {\it WISE}, and the 35\% and 50\% sky coverage from SDSS and Pan-STARRS, respectively, we explore the efficacy of $m_{R}$ (optical) - $m_{3.4 \mu m}$ (mid-infrared), hereafter $R-W1$, as a color diagnostic to identify obscured supermassive black hole accretion in wide-area X-ray surveys. We use the $\sim$16. Read More

The uncertain origin of the recently-discovered `changing-looking' quasar phenomenon -- in which a luminous quasar dims significantly to a quiescent state in repeat spectroscopy over ~10 year timescales -- may present unexpected challenges to our understanding of quasar accretion. To better understand this phenomenon, we take a first step to building a sample of changing-look quasars with a systematic but simple archival search for these objects in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. By leveraging the >10 year baselines for objects with repeat spectroscopy, we uncover two new changing-look quasars, and a third discovered previously. Read More

2015Sep
Affiliations: 1Penn State, 2Yale, 3U. Washington, 4Penn State, 5U. Washington, 6Carnegie Observatories, 7CfA, 8CfA, 9Yale, 10Princeton, 11MPE, 12Penn State, 13MPE, 14MPE

We report the discovery of a new "changing-look" quasar, SDSS J101152.98+544206.4, through repeat spectroscopy from the Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey. Read More

2015Aug
Authors: Kyle S. Dawson, Jean-Paul Kneib, Will J. Percival, Shadab Alam, Franco D. Albareti, Scott F. Anderson, Eric Armengaud, Eric Aubourg, Stephen Bailey, Julian E. Bautista, Andreas A. Berlind, Matthew A. Bershady, Florian Beutler, Dmitry Bizyaev, Michael R. Blanton, Michael Blomqvist, Adam S. Bolton, Jo Bovy, W. N. Brandt, Jon Brinkmann, Joel R. Brownstein, Etienne Burtin, N. G. Busca, Zheng Cai, Chia-Hsun Chuang, Nicolas Clerc, Johan Comparat, Frances Cope, Rupert A. C. Croft, Irene Cruz-Gonzalez, Luiz N. da Costa, Marie-Claude Cousinou, Jeremy Darling, Axel de la Macorra, Sylvain de la Torre, Timothee Delubac, Helion du Mas des Bourboux, Tom Dwelly, Anne Ealet, Daniel J. Eisenstein, Michael Eracleous, S. Escoffier, Xiaohui Fan, Alexis Finoguenov, Andreu Font-Ribera, Peter Frinchaboy, Patrick Gaulme, Antonis Georgakakis, Paul Green, Hong Guo, Julien Guy, Shirley Ho, Diana Holder, Joe Huehnerhoff, Timothy Hutchinson, Yipeng Jing, Eric Jullo, Vikrant Kamble, Karen Kinemuchi, David Kirkby, Francisco-Shu Kitaura, Mark A. Klaene, Russ R. Laher, Dustin Lang, Pierre Laurent, Jean-Marc Le Goff, Cheng Li, Yu Liang, Marcos Lima, Qiufan Lin, Weipeng Lin, Yen-Ting Lin, Daniel C. Long, Britt Lundgren, Nicholas MacDonald, Marcio Antonio Geimba Maia, Elena Malanushenko, Viktor Malanushenko, Vivek Mariappan, Cameron K. McBride, Ian D. McGreer, Brice Menard, Andrea Merloni, Andres Meza, Antonio D. Montero-Dorta, Demitri Muna, Adam D. Myers, Kirpal Nandra, Tracy Naugle, Jeffrey A. Newman, Pasquier Noterdaeme, Peter Nugent, Ricardo Ogando, Matthew D. Olmstead, Audrey Oravetz, Daniel J. Oravetz, Nikhil Padmanabhan, Nathalie Palanque-Delabrouille, Kaike Pan, John K. Parejko, Isabelle Paris, John A. Peacock, Patrick Petitjean, Matthew M. Pieri, Alice Pisani, Francisco Prada, Abhishek Prakash, Anand Raichoor, Beth Reid, James Rich, Jethro Ridl, Sergio Rodriguez-Torres, Aurelio Carnero Rosell, Ashley J. Ross, Graziano Rossi, John Ruan, Mara Salvato, Conor Sayres, Donald P. Schneider, David J. Schlegel, Uros Seljak, Hee-Jong Seo, Branimir Sesar, Sarah Shandera, Yiping Shu, Anze Slosar, Flavia Sobreira, Alina Streblyanska, Nao Suzuki, Charling Tao, Donna Taylor, Jeremy L. Tinker, Rita Tojeiro, Mariana Vargas-Magana, Yuting Wang, Benjamin A. Weaver, David H. Weinberg, Martin White, W. M. Wood-Vasey, Christophe Yeche, Zhongxu Zhai, Cheng Zhao, Gong-bo Zhao, Zheng Zheng, Guangtun Ben Zhu, Hu Zou

The Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) will conduct novel cosmological observations using the BOSS spectrograph at Apache Point Observatory. Observations will be simultaneous with the Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS) designed for variability studies and the Spectroscopic Identification of eROSITA Sources (SPIDERS) program designed for studies of X-ray sources. eBOSS will use four different tracers to measure the distance-redshift relation with baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). Read More

Massive black hole binaries are naturally predicted in the context of the hierarchical model of structure formation. The binaries that manage to lose most of their angular momentum can coalesce to form a single remnant. In the last stages of this process, the holes undergo an extremely loud phase of gravitational wave emission, possibly detectable by current and future probes. Read More

We aim to constrain the evolution of AGN as a function of obscuration using an X-ray selected sample of $\sim2000$ AGN from a multi-tiered survey including the CDFS, AEGIS-XD, COSMOS and XMM-XXL fields. The spectra of individual X-ray sources are analysed using a Bayesian methodology with a physically realistic model to infer the posterior distribution of the hydrogen column density and intrinsic X-ray luminosity. We develop a novel non-parametric method which allows us to robustly infer the distribution of the AGN population in X-ray luminosity, redshift and obscuring column density, relying only on minimal smoothness assumptions. Read More

2015Jan
Authors: Shadab Alam1, Franco D. Albareti2, Carlos Allende Prieto3, F. Anders4, Scott F. Anderson5, Brett H. Andrews6, Eric Armengaud7, Éric Aubourg8, Stephen Bailey9, Julian E. Bautista10, Rachael L. Beaton11, Timothy C. Beers12, Chad F. Bender13, Andreas A. Berlind14, Florian Beutler15, Vaishali Bhardwaj16, Jonathan C. Bird17, Dmitry Bizyaev18, Cullen H. Blake19, Michael R. Blanton20, Michael Blomqvist21, John J. Bochanski22, Adam S. Bolton23, Jo Bovy24, A. Shelden Bradley25, W. N. Brandt26, D. E. Brauer27, J. Brinkmann28, Peter J. Brown29, Joel R. Brownstein30, Angela Burden31, Etienne Burtin32, Nicolás G. Busca33, Zheng Cai34, Diego Capozzi35, Aurelio Carnero Rosell36, Ricardo Carrera37, Yen-Chi Chen38, Cristina Chiappini39, S. Drew Chojnowski40, Chia-Hsun Chuang41, Nicolas Clerc42, Johan Comparat43, Kevin Covey44, Rupert A. C. Croft45, Antonio J. Cuesta46, Katia Cunha47, Luiz N. da Costa48, Nicola Da Rio49, James R. A. Davenport50, Kyle S. Dawson51, Nathan De Lee52, Timothée Delubac53, Rohit Deshpande54, Letícia Dutra-Ferreira55, Tom Dwelly56, Anne Ealet57, Garrett L. Ebelke58, Edward M. Edmondson59, Daniel J. Eisenstein60, Stephanie Escoffier61, Massimiliano Esposito62, Xiaohui Fan63, Emma Fernández-Alvar64, Diane Feuillet65, Nurten Filiz Ak66, Hayley Finley67, Alexis Finoguenov68, Kevin Flaherty69, Scott W. Fleming70, Andreu Font-Ribera71, Jonathan Foster72, Peter M. Frinchaboy73, J. G. Galbraith-Frew74, D. A. García-Hernández75, Ana E. García Pérez76, Patrick Gaulme77, Jian Ge78, R. Génova-Santos79, Luan Ghezzi80, Bruce A. Gillespie81, Léo Girardi82, Daniel Goddard83, Satya Gontcho A Gontcho84, Jonay I. González Hernández85, Eva K. Grebel86, Jan Niklas Grieb87, Nolan Grieves88, James E. Gunn89, Hong Guo90, Paul Harding91, Sten Hasselquist92, Suzanne L. Hawley93, Michael Hayden94, Fred R. Hearty95, Shirley Ho96, David W. Hogg97, Kelly Holley-Bockelmann98, Jon A. Holtzman99, Klaus Honscheid100, Joseph Huehnerhoff101, Linhua Jiang102, Jennifer A. Johnson103, Karen Kinemuchi104, David Kirkby105, Francisco Kitaura106, Mark A. Klaene107, Jean-Paul Kneib108, Xavier P. Koenig109, Charles R. Lam110, Ting-Wen Lan111, Dustin Lang112, Pierre Laurent113, Jean-Marc Le Goff114, Alexie Leauthaud115, Khee-Gan Lee116, Young Sun Lee117, Timothy C. Licquia118, Jian Liu119, Daniel C. Long120, Martín López-Corredoira121, Diego Lorenzo-Oliveira122, Sara Lucatello123, Britt Lundgren124, Robert H. Lupton125, Claude E. Mack III126, Suvrath Mahadevan127, Marcio A. G. Maia128, Steven R. Majewski129, Elena Malanushenko130, Viktor Malanushenko131, A. Manchado132, Marc Manera133, Qingqing Mao134, Claudia Maraston135, Robert C. Marchwinski136, Daniel Margala137, Sarah L. Martell138, Marie Martig139, Karen L. Masters140, Cameron K. McBride141, Peregrine M. McGehee142, Ian D. McGreer143, Richard G. McMahon144, Brice Ménard145, Marie-Luise Menzel146, Andrea Merloni147, Szabolcs Mészáros148, Adam A. Miller149, Jordi Miralda-Escudé150, Hironao Miyatake151, Antonio D. Montero-Dorta152, Surhud More153, Xan Morice-Atkinson154, Heather L. Morrison155, Demitri Muna156, Adam D. Myers157, Jeffrey A. Newman158, Mark Neyrinck159, Duy Cuong Nguyen160, Robert C. Nichol161, David L. Nidever162, Pasquier Noterdaeme163, Sebastián E. Nuza164, Julia E. O'Connell165, Robert W. O'Connell166, Ross O'Connell167, Ricardo L. C. Ogando168, Matthew D. Olmstead169, Audrey E. Oravetz170, Daniel J. Oravetz171, Keisuke Osumi172, Russell Owen173, Deborah L. Padgett174, Nikhil Padmanabhan175, Martin Paegert176, Nathalie Palanque-Delabrouille177, Kaike Pan178, John K. Parejko179, Changbom Park180, Isabelle Pâris181, Petchara Pattarakijwanich182, M. Pellejero-Ibanez183, Joshua Pepper184, Will J. Percival185, Ismael Pérez-Fournon186, Ignasi Pérez-Ràfols187, Patrick Petitjean188, Matthew M. Pieri189, Marc H. Pinsonneault190, Gustavo F. Porto de Mello191, Francisco Prada192, Abhishek Prakash193, Adrian M. Price-Whelan194, M. Jordan Raddick195, Mubdi Rahman196, Beth A. Reid197, James Rich198, Hans-Walter Rix199, Annie C. Robin200, Constance M. Rockosi201, Thaíse S. Rodrigues202, Sergio Rodríguez-Rottes203, Natalie A. Roe204, Ashley J. Ross205, Nicholas P. Ross206, Graziano Rossi207, John J. Ruan208, J. A. Rubiño-Martín209, Eli S. Rykoff210, Salvador Salazar-Albornoz211, Mara Salvato212, Lado Samushia213, Ariel G. Sánchez214, Basílio Santiago215, Conor Sayres216, Ricardo P. Schiavon217, David J. Schlegel218, Sarah J. Schmidt219, Donald P. Schneider220, Mathias Schultheis221, Axel D. Schwope222, C. G. Scóccola223, Kris Sellgren224, Hee-Jong Seo225, Neville Shane226, Yue Shen227, Matthew Shetrone228, Yiping Shu229, Thirupathi Sivarani230, M. F. Skrutskie231, Anže Slosar232, Verne V. Smith233, Flávia Sobreira234, Keivan G. Stassun235, Matthias Steinmetz236, Michael A. Strauss237, Alina Streblyanska238, Molly E. C. Swanson239, Jonathan C. Tan240, Jamie Tayar241, Ryan C. Terrien242, Aniruddha R. Thakar243, Daniel Thomas244, Benjamin A. Thompson245, Jeremy L. Tinker246, Rita Tojeiro247, Nicholas W. Troup248, Mariana Vargas-Magaña249, Jose A. Vazquez250, Licia Verde251, Matteo Viel252, Nicole P. Vogt253, David A. Wake254, Ji Wang255, Benjamin A. Weaver256, David H. Weinberg257, Benjamin J. Weiner258, Martin White259, John C. Wilson260, John P. Wisniewski261, W. M. Wood-Vasey262, Christophe Yèche263, Donald G. York264, Nadia L. Zakamska265, O. Zamora266, Gail Zasowski267, Idit Zehavi268, Gong-Bo Zhao269, Zheng Zheng270, Xu Zhou271, Zhimin Zhou272, Guangtun Zhu273, Hu Zou274
Affiliations: 1Bruce and Astrid McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA, 2Instituto de Física Teórica, 3Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 4Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, 5Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195, USA, 6Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA, 7CEA, Centre de Saclay, Irfu/SPP, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 8APC, University of Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-75205 Paris, France, 9Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA, 10APC, University of Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-75205 Paris, France, 11Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325, USA, 12Department of Physics and JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA, 13Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA, 14Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, VU Station 1807, Nashville, TN 37235, USA, 15Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA, 16Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195, USA, 17Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, VU Station 1807, Nashville, TN 37235, USA, 18Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349, USA, 19University of Pennsylvania, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 219 S. 33rd St., Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA, 20Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003, USA, 21Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA, 22Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195, USA, 23Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA, 24Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA, 25Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349, USA, 26Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA, 27Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, 28Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349, USA, 29George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A. and M. University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843, USA, 30Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA, 31Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX, UK, 32CEA, Centre de Saclay, Irfu/SPP, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 33Observatório Nacional, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - 20921-400, Brazil, 34Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA, 35Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX, UK, 36Observatório Nacional, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - 20921-400, Brazil, 37Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38Department of Statistics, Bruce and Astrid McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA, 39Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, 40Department of Astronomy, MSC 4500, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA, 41Instituto de Física Teórica, 42Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, Giessenbachstr. D-85741 Garching, Germany, 43Instituto de Física Teórica, 44Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff AZ 86001, 45Bruce and Astrid McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA, 46Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona/IEEC, Barcelona E-08028, Spain, 47Observatório Nacional, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - 20921-400, Brazil, 48Observatório Nacional, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - 20921-400, Brazil, 49Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055, USA, 50Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195, USA, 51Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA, 52Department of Physics and Geology, Northern Kentucky University, Highland Heights, KY 41099, USA, 53Laboratoire d'Astrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 54Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA, 55Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Observatório do Valongo, Ladeira do Pedro Antônio 43, 20080-090 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 56Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, Giessenbachstr. D-85741 Garching, Germany, 57Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, E-13288 Marseille, France, 58Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325, USA, 59Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX, UK, 60Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138, USA, 61Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, E-13288 Marseille, France, 62Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 63Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA, 64Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 65Department of Astronomy, MSC 4500, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA, 66Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA, 67Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014, Paris, France, 68Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2, Helsinki FI-00140, Finland, 69Department of Astronomy, Van Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459, 70Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA, 71Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA, 72Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA, 73Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, 2800 South University Drive, Fort Worth, TX 76129, USA, 74Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA, 75Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 76Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325, USA, 77Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349, USA, 78Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055, USA, 79Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 80Observatório Nacional, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - 20921-400, Brazil, 81Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA, 82INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova, Italy, 83Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX, UK, 84Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona/IEEC, Barcelona E-08028, Spain, 85Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 86Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12--14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany, 87Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, Giessenbachstr. D-85741 Garching, Germany, 88Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055, USA, 89Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA, 90Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA, 91Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA, 92Department of Astronomy, MSC 4500, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA, 93Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195, USA, 94Department of Astronomy, MSC 4500, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA, 95Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA, 96Bruce and Astrid McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA, 97Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003, USA, 98Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, VU Station 1807, Nashville, TN 37235, USA, 99Department of Astronomy, MSC 4500, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA, 100Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA, 101Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349, USA, 102Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China, 103Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA, 104Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349, USA, 105Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA, 106Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, 107Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349, USA, 108Laboratoire d'Astrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 109Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101, USA, 110Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325, USA, 111Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA, 112Bruce and Astrid McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA, 113CEA, Centre de Saclay, Irfu/SPP, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 114CEA, Centre de Saclay, Irfu/SPP, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 115Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, 116Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany, 117Department of Astronomy and Space Science Chungnam National University Daejeon 305-764, Repulic of Korea, 118PITT PACC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA, 119Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055, USA, 120Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349, USA, 121Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 122Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Observatório do Valongo, Ladeira do Pedro Antônio 43, 20080-090 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 123INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova, Italy, 124Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison WI 53703, USA, 125Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA, 126Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, VU Station 1807, Nashville, TN 37235, USA, 127Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA, 128Observatório Nacional, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - 20921-400, Brazil, 129Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325, USA, 130Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349, USA, 131Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349, USA, 132Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 133Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX, UK, 134Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, VU Station 1807, Nashville, TN 37235, USA, 135Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX, UK, 136Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA, 137Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA, 138School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia, 139Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany, 140Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX, UK, 141Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138, USA, 142IPAC, MS 220-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA, 143Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA, 144Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK, 145Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA, 146Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, Giessenbachstr. D-85741 Garching, Germany, 147Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, Giessenbachstr. D-85741 Garching, Germany, 148ELTE Gothard Astrophysical Observatory, H-9704 Szombathely, Szent Imre herceg st. 112, Hungary, 149Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA, 150Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Barcelona E-08010, Spain, 151Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA, 152Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA, 153Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, 154Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX, UK, 155Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA, 156Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA, 157Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA, 158PITT PACC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA, 159Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA, 160Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4, Canada, 161Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX, UK, 162Dept. of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48104, USA, 163Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014, Paris, France, 164Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, 165Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, 2800 South University Drive, Fort Worth, TX 76129, USA, 166Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325, USA, 167Bruce and Astrid McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA, 168Observatório Nacional, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - 20921-400, Brazil, 169Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA, 170Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349, USA, 171Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349, USA, 172Bruce and Astrid McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA, 173Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195, USA, 174NASA/GSFC, Code 665, Greenbelt, MC 20770, USA, 175Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA, 176Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, VU Station 1807, Nashville, TN 37235, USA, 177CEA, Centre de Saclay, Irfu/SPP, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 178Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349, USA, 179Department of Physics, Yale University, 260 Whitney Ave, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA, 180School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722, Republic of Korea, 181INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste, Italy, 182Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA, 183Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 184Department of Physics, Lehigh University, 16 Memorial Drive East, Bethlehem, PA 18015, USA, 185Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX, UK, 186Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 187Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona/IEEC, Barcelona E-08028, Spain, 188Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014, Paris, France, 189A*MIDEX, Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM, 190Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA, 191Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Observatório do Valongo, Ladeira do Pedro Antônio 43, 20080-090 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 192Instituto de Física Teórica, 193PITT PACC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA, 194Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA, 195Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA, 196Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA, 197Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA, 198CEA, Centre de Saclay, Irfu/SPP, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 199Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany, 200Université de Franche-Comté, Institut Utinam, UMR CNRS 6213, OSU Theta, Besançon, F-25010, France, 201Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA, 202INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova, Italy, 203Instituto de Física Teórica, 204Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA, 205Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX, UK, 206Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA, 207Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Sejong University, Seoul, 143-747, Korea, 208Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195, USA, 209Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 210SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, 211Universitäts-Sternwarte München, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 Munich, Germany, 212Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, Giessenbachstr. D-85741 Garching, Germany, 213Department of Physics, Kansas State University, 116 Cardwell Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA, 214Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, Giessenbachstr. D-85741 Garching, Germany, 215Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Caixa Postal 15051, Porto Alegre, RS - 91501-970, Brazil, 216Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195, USA, 217Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A'Ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720, USA, 218Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA, 219Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA, 220Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA, 221Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de Côte d'Azur, Laboratoire Lagrange, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4, France, 222Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, 223Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 224Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA, 225Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, 251B Clippinger Labs, Athens, OH 45701, USA, 226Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325, USA, 227Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101, USA, 228University of Texas at Austin, Hobby-Eberly Telescope, 32 Fowlkes Rd, McDonald Observatory, TX 79734-3005, USA, 229Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA, 230Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II Block, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034, India, 231Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325, USA, 232Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg 510, Upton, NY 11973, USA, 233National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ, 85719, USA, 234Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia, - LIneA, Rua Gal.José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - 20921-400, Brazil, 235Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, VU Station 1807, Nashville, TN 37235, USA, 236Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, 237Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA, 238Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 239Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138, USA, 240Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055, USA, 241Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA, 242Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA, 243Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA, 244Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX, UK, 245Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, 2800 South University Drive, Fort Worth, TX 76129, USA, 246Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003, USA, 247School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9SS, UK, 248Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325, USA, 249Bruce and Astrid McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA, 250Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg 510, Upton, NY 11973, USA, 251Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Barcelona E-08010, Spain, 252INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste, Italy, 253Department of Astronomy, MSC 4500, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA, 254Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison WI 53703, USA, 255Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101, USA, 256Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003, USA, 257Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA, 258Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA, 259Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA, 260Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325, USA, 261H.L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA, 262PITT PACC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA, 263CEA, Centre de Saclay, Irfu/SPP, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 264Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and the Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA, 265Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA, 266Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 267Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA, 268Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA, 269National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012, China, 270Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA, 271Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012, China, 272Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012, China, 273Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA, 274Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012, China

The third generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-III) took data from 2008 to 2014 using the original SDSS wide-field imager, the original and an upgraded multi-object fiber-fed optical spectrograph, a new near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph, and a novel optical interferometer. All the data from SDSS-III are now made public. In particular, this paper describes Data Release 11 (DR11) including all data acquired through 2013 July, and Data Release 12 (DR12) adding data acquired through 2014 July (including all data included in previous data releases), marking the end of SDSS-III observing. Read More

2013Jun
Authors: Kirpal Nandra1, Didier Barret2, Xavier Barcons3, Andy Fabian4, Jan-Willem den Herder5, Luigi Piro6, Mike Watson7, Christophe Adami8, James Aird9, Jose Manuel Afonso10, Dave Alexander11, Costanza Argiroffi12, Lorenzo Amati13, Monique Arnaud14, Jean-Luc Atteia15, Marc Audard16, Carles Badenes17, Jean Ballet18, Lucia Ballo19, Aya Bamba20, Anil Bhardwaj21, Elia Stefano Battistelli22, Werner Becker23, Michaël De Becker24, Ehud Behar25, Stefano Bianchi26, Veronica Biffi27, Laura Bîrzan28, Fabrizio Bocchino29, Slavko Bogdanov30, Laurence Boirin31, Thomas Boller32, Stefano Borgani33, Katharina Borm34, Nicolas Bouché35, Hervé Bourdin36, Richard Bower37, Valentina Braito38, Enzo Branchini39, Graziella Branduardi-Raymont40, Joel Bregman41, Laura Brenneman42, Murray Brightman43, Marcus Brüggen44, Johannes Buchner45, Esra Bulbul46, Marcella Brusa47, Michal Bursa48, Alessandro Caccianiga49, Ed Cackett50, Sergio Campana51, Nico Cappelluti52, Massimo Cappi53, Francisco Carrera54, Maite Ceballos55, Finn Christensen56, You-Hua Chu57, Eugene Churazov58, Nicolas Clerc59, Stephane Corbel60, Amalia Corral61, Andrea Comastri62, Elisa Costantini63, Judith Croston64, Mauro Dadina65, Antonino D'Ai66, Anne Decourchelle67, Roberto Della Ceca68, Konrad Dennerl69, Klaus Dolag70, Chris Done71, Michal Dovciak72, Jeremy Drake73, Dominique Eckert74, Alastair Edge75, Stefano Ettori76, Yuichiro Ezoe77, Eric Feigelson78, Rob Fender79, Chiara Feruglio80, Alexis Finoguenov81, Fabrizio Fiore82, Massimiliano Galeazzi83, Sarah Gallagher84, Poshak Gandhi85, Massimo Gaspari86, Fabio Gastaldello87, Antonis Georgakakis88, Ioannis Georgantopoulos89, Marat Gilfanov90, Myriam Gitti91, Randy Gladstone92, Rene Goosmann93, Eric Gosset94, Nicolas Grosso95, Manuel Guedel96, Martin Guerrero97, Frank Haberl98, Martin Hardcastle99, Sebastian Heinz100, Almudena Alonso Herrero101, Anthony Hervé102, Mats Holmstrom103, Kazushi Iwasawa104, Peter Jonker105, Jelle Kaastra106, Erin Kara107, Vladimir Karas108, Joel Kastner109, Andrew King110, Daria Kosenko111, Dimita Koutroumpa112, Ralph Kraft113, Ingo Kreykenbohm114, Rosine Lallement115, Giorgio Lanzuisi116, J. Lee117, Marianne Lemoine-Goumard118, Andrew Lobban119, Giuseppe Lodato120, Lorenzo Lovisari121, Simone Lotti122, Ian McCharthy123, Brian McNamara124, Antonio Maggio125, Roberto Maiolino126, Barbara De Marco127, Domitilla de Martino128, Silvia Mateos129, Giorgio Matt130, Ben Maughan131, Pasquale Mazzotta132, Mariano Mendez133, Andrea Merloni134, Giuseppina Micela135, Marco Miceli136, Robert Mignani137, Jon Miller138, Giovanni Miniutti139, Silvano Molendi140, Rodolfo Montez141, Alberto Moretti142, Christian Motch143, Yaël Nazé144, Jukka Nevalainen145, Fabrizio Nicastro146, Paul Nulsen147, Takaya Ohashi148, Paul O'Brien149, Julian Osborne150, Lida Oskinova151, Florian Pacaud152, Frederik Paerels153, Mat Page154, Iossif Papadakis155, Giovanni Pareschi156, Robert Petre157, Pierre-Olivier Petrucci158, Enrico Piconcelli159, Ignazio Pillitteri160, C. Pinto161, Jelle de Plaa162, Etienne Pointecouteau163, Trevor Ponman164, Gabriele Ponti165, Delphine Porquet166, Ken Pounds167, Gabriel Pratt168, Peter Predehl169, Daniel Proga170, Dimitrios Psaltis171, David Rafferty172, Miriam Ramos-Ceja173, Piero Ranalli174, Elena Rasia175, Arne Rau176, Gregor Rauw177, Nanda Rea178, Andy Read179, James Reeves180, Thomas Reiprich181, Matthieu Renaud182, Chris Reynolds183, Guido Risaliti184, Jerome Rodriguez185, Paola Rodriguez Hidalgo186, Mauro Roncarelli187, David Rosario188, Mariachiara Rossetti189, Agata Rozanska190, Emmanouil Rovilos191, Ruben Salvaterra192, Mara Salvato193, Tiziana Di Salvo194, Jeremy Sanders195, Jorge Sanz-Forcada196, Kevin Schawinski197, Joop Schaye198, Axel Schwope199, Salvatore Sciortino200, Paola Severgnini201, Francesco Shankar202, Debora Sijacki203, Stuart Sim204, Christian Schmid205, Randall Smith206, Andrew Steiner207, Beate Stelzer208, Gordon Stewart209, Tod Strohmayer210, Lothar Strüder211, Ming Sun212, Yoh Takei213, V. Tatischeff214, Andreas Tiengo215, Francesco Tombesi216, Ginevra Trinchieri217, T. G. Tsuru218, Asif Ud-Doula219, Eugenio Ursino220, Lynne Valencic221, Eros Vanzella222, Simon Vaughan223, Cristian Vignali224, Jacco Vink225, Fabio Vito226, Marta Volonteri227, Daniel Wang228, Natalie Webb229, Richard Willingale230, Joern Wilms231, Michael Wise232, Diana Worrall233, Andrew Young234, Luca Zampieri235, Jean In't Zand236, Silvia Zane237, Andreas Zezas238, Yuying Zhang239, Irina Zhuravleva240
Affiliations: 1DE, 2FR, 3ES, 4UK, 5NL, 6IT, 7UK, 8FR, 9UK, 10PT, 11UK, 12IT, 13IT, 14FR, 15FR, 16CH, 17US, 18FR, 19IT, 20JP, 21IN, 22IT, 23DE, 24BE, 25IL, 26IT, 27IT, 28NL, 29IT, 30US, 31FR, 32DE, 33IT, 34DE, 35FR, 36IT, 37UK, 38IT, 39IT, 40UK, 41US, 42US, 43DE, 44DE, 45DE, 46US, 47IT, 48CZ, 49IT, 50US, 51IT, 52IT, 53IT, 54ES, 55ES, 56DK, 57US, 58DE, 59DE, 60FR, 61GR, 62IT, 63NL, 64UK, 65IT, 66IT, 67FR, 68IT, 69DE, 70DE, 71UK, 72CZ, 73US, 74CH, 75UK, 76IT, 77JP, 78US, 79UK, 80FR, 81FI, 82IT, 83IT, 84CA, 85UK, 86IT, 87IT, 88DE, 89GR, 90DE, 91IT, 92US, 93FR, 94BE, 95FR, 96AT, 97ES, 98DE, 99UK, 100US, 101ES, 102FR, 103SE, 104ES, 105NL, 106NL, 107UK, 108CZ, 109US, 110UK, 111FR, 112FR, 113US, 114D, 115FR, 116GR, 117US, 118FR, 119UK, 120IT, 121DE, 122IT, 123UK, 124CA, 125IT, 126UK, 127DE, 128IT, 129ES, 130IT, 131UK, 132IT, 133NL, 134DE, 135IT, 136IT, 137IT, 138US, 139ES, 140IT, 141ES, 142IT, 143FR, 144BE, 145FI, 146IT, 147US, 148JP, 149UK, 150UK, 151DE, 152DE, 153US, 154UK, 155GR, 156IT, 157US, 158FR, 159IT, 160IT, 161UK, 162NL, 163FR, 164UK, 165DE, 166FR, 167UK, 168FR, 169DE, 170US, 171US, 172NL, 173DE, 174IT, 175US, 176DE, 177BE, 178IT, 179UK, 180UK, 181DE, 182FR, 183US, 184IT, 185FR, 186CA, 187IT, 188DE, 189IT, 190PL, 191UK, 192IT, 193DE, 194IT, 195DE, 196ES, 197CH, 198NL, 199D, 200IT, 201IT, 202FR, 203UK, 204IE, 205DE, 206US, 207US, 208IT, 209UK, 210US, 211DE, 212US, 213JP, 214FR, 215IT, 216US, 217IT, 218JP, 219US, 220NL, 221US, 222IT, 223UK, 224IT, 225NL, 226IT, 227FR, 228US, 229FR, 230UK, 231DE, 232NL, 233UK, 234UK, 235IT, 236NL, 237UK, 238GR, 239DE, 240US

This White Paper, submitted to the recent ESA call for science themes to define its future large missions, advocates the need for a transformational leap in our understanding of two key questions in astrophysics: 1) How does ordinary matter assemble into the large scale structures that we see today? 2) How do black holes grow and shape the Universe? Hot gas in clusters, groups and the intergalactic medium dominates the baryonic content of the local Universe. To understand the astrophysical processes responsible for the formation and assembly of these large structures, it is necessary to measure their physical properties and evolution. This requires spatially resolved X-ray spectroscopy with a factor 10 increase in both telescope throughput and spatial resolving power compared to currently planned facilities. Read More

A crucial challenge in astrophysics over the coming decades will be to understand the origins of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) that lie at the centres of most, if not all, galaxies. The processes responsible for the initial formation of these SMBHs and their early growth via accretion - when they are seen as Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) - remain unknown. To address this challenge, we must identify low luminosity and obscured z>6 AGNs, which represent the bulk of early SMBH growth. Read More

The mid-infrared to ultraviolet (0.1 -- 10 $\mu m$) spectral energy distribution (SED) shapes of 407 X-ray-selected radio-quiet type 1 AGN in the wide-field ``Cosmic Evolution Survey" (COSMOS) have been studied for signs of evolution. For a sub-sample of 200 radio-quiet quasars with black hole mass estimates and host galaxy corrections, we studied their mean SEDs as a function of a broad range of redshift, bolometric luminosity, black hole mass and Eddington ratio, and compared them with the Elvis et al. Read More

We define a quasar-galaxy mixing diagram using the slopes of their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from 1\mu m to 3000\AA\ and from 1\mu m to 3\mu m in the rest frame. The mixing diagram can easily distinguish among quasar-dominated, galaxy-dominated and reddening-dominated SED shapes. By studying the position of the 413 XMM selected Type 1 AGN in the wide-field "Cosmic Evolution Survey" (COSMOS) in the mixing diagram, we find that a combination of the Elvis et al. Read More

Massive black holes (MBHs) in contrast to stellar mass black holes are expected to substantially change their properties over their lifetime. MBH masses increase by several order of magnitude over the Hubble time, as illustrated by Soltan's argument. MBH spins also must evolve through the series of accretion and mergers events that grow the MBH's masses. Read More

2012Jun

The 4MOST consortium is currently halfway through a Conceptual Design study for ESO with the aim to develop a wide-field (>3 square degree, goal >5 square degree), high-multiplex (>1500 fibres, goal 3000 fibres) spectroscopic survey facility for an ESO 4m-class telescope (VISTA). 4MOST will run permanently on the telescope to perform a 5 year public survey yielding more than 20 million spectra at resolution R~5000 ({\lambda}=390-1000 nm) and more than 2 million spectra at R~20,000 (395-456.5 nm & 587-673 nm). Read More

[Abriged] Supermassive black holes (SMBH) lurk in the nuclei of most massive galaxies, perhaps in all of them. The tight observed scaling relations between SMBH masses and structural properties of their host spheroids likely indicate that the processes fostering the growth of both components are physically linked, despite the many orders of magnitude difference in their physical size. This chapter discusses how we constrain the evolution of SMBH, probed by their actively growing phases, when they shine as active galactic nuclei (AGN) with luminosities often in excess of that of the entire stellar population of their host galaxies. Read More

The black hole mass function of supermassive black holes describes the evolution of the distribution of black hole mass. It is one of the primary empirical tools available for mapping the growth of supermassive black holes and for constraining theoretical models of their evolution. In this review we discuss methods for estimating the black hole mass function, including their advantages and disadvantages. Read More

2011Mar
Affiliations: 1UCSC, 2Arizona, 3CfA, 4CfA, 5Arizona, 6UCSD, 7Max-Planck/Garching, 8Yale, 9CfA, 10Max-Planck/Heidelberg, 11Ehime, 12Ehime, 13STScI, 14CfA, 15CUNY, 16ESO, 17Max-Planck/Garching, 18Caltech

We show how accretion rate governs the physical properties of a sample of unobscured broad-line, narrow-line, and lineless active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We avoid the systematic errors plaguing previous studies of AGN accretion rate by using accurate accretion luminosities (L_int) from well-sampled multiwavelength SEDs from the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), and accurate black hole masses derived from virial scaling relations (for broad-line AGNs) or host-AGN relations (for narrow-line and lineless AGNs). In general, broad emission lines are present only at the highest accretion rates (L_int/L_Edd > 0. Read More

2010Sep
Affiliations: 1Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich, 2Southampton, 3Paris, 4INAF Brera, 5MPE, Garching

We investigate the behaviour of the accretion discs in the outbursts of the low-mass black-hole X-ray binaries (BHXRB), an overview of which we have presented previously. Almost all of the systems in which there are sufficient observations in the most disc dominated states show a variation of the disc luminosity with temperature close to L ~\propto T^4. This in turn implies that in these states, the disc radius, R_in, and the colour correction factor, f_col, are almost constant. Read More

We derive the growth of SMBHs relative to the stellar content of their host galaxy predicted under the assumption of BH accretion triggered by galaxy encounters occurring during their merging histories. We show that, within this framework, the ratio Gamma=(M_BH/M_*)(z)/(M_BH/M_*)(z=0) between the Black Hole mass and the galactic stellar mass (normalized to the local value) depends on both BH mass and redshift. While the average value and the spread of Gamma(z) increase with z, such an effect is larger for massive BHs, reaching values Gamma=5 for massive Black Holes (M>10^9 M_{\odot}) at z>4, in agreement with recent observations of high-redshift QSOs; this is due to the effectiveness of interactions in triggering BH accretion in high-density environments at high redshifts. Read More

I will describe the constraints available from a study of AGN evolution synthesis models on the growth of the supermassive black holes (SMBH) population in the two main 'modes' observed (kinetic- and radiatively-dominated, respectively). I will show how SMBH mass function evolves anti-hierarchically, i.e. Read More

The physical and evolutionary relation between growing supermassive black holes (AGN) and host galaxies is currently the subject of intense research activity. Nevertheless, a deep theoretical understanding of such a relation is hampered by the unique multi-scale nature of the combined AGN-galaxy system, which defies any purely numerical, or semi-analytic approach. Various physical process active on different scales have signatures in different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum; thus, observations at different wavelengths and theoretical ideas all should contribute towards a "large dynamic range" view of the AGN phenomenon. Read More

We present black hole masses and accretion rates for 182 Type 1 AGN in COSMOS. We estimate masses using the scaling relations for the broad Hb, MgII, and CIV emission lines in the redshift ranges 0.16Read More

2008Aug

The growth of supermassive black holes (SMBH) through accretion is accompanied by the release of enormous amounts of energy which can either be radiated away, as happens in quasars, advected into the black hole, or disposed of in kinetic form through powerful jets, as is observed, for example, in radio galaxies. Here, I will present new constraints on the evolution of the SMBH mass function and Eddington ratio distribution, obtained from a study of AGN luminosity functions aimed at accounting for both radiative and kinetic energy output of AGN in a systematic way. First, I discuss how a refined Soltan argument leads to joint constraints on the mass-weighted average spin of SMBH and of the total mass density of high redshift (z~5) and "wandering" black holes. Read More

We present a comprehensive synthesis model for the AGN evolution and the growth of supermassive black holes in the Universe. We solve the continuity equation for SMBH mass function using the locally determined one as a boundary condition, and the hard X-ray luminosity function as tracer of the AGN growth rate distribution, supplemented with a luminosity-dependent bolometric correction and an absorbing column distribution. Differently from most previous semi-analytic and numerical models, we do not assume any specific distribution of Eddington ratios, rather we determine it empirically by coupling the mass and luminosity functions. Read More

2007Jul

(Abridged) We have studied the relationship among nuclear radio and X-ray power, Bondi rate and the kinetic luminosity of sub-Eddington active galactic nuclear (AGN) jets. Besides the recently discovered correlation between jet kinetic and Bondi power, we show that a clear correlation exists also between Eddington-scaled kinetic power and bolometric luminosity, given by: Log(L_kin/L_Edd)=0.49*Log(L_bol/L_Edd)-0. Read More

We derive the kinetic luminosity function for flat spectrum radio jets, using the empirical and theoretical scaling relation between jet power and radio core luminosity. The normalization for this relation is derived from a sample of flat spectrum cores in galaxy clusters with jet-driven X-ray cavities. The total integrated jet power at z=0 is W_{tot} ~ 3x10^40 ergs/s/Mpc^{3}. Read More

The X-ray spectra of luminous Seyfert 1 galaxies often appear to be reflection dominated. In a number of Narrow Line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies and galactic black holes in the very high state, the variability of the continuum and of the iron line are decoupled, the reflected component being often much less variable than the continuum. These properties have been interpreted as effects of gravitational light bending. Read More

We interpret the rapid correlated UV/optical/ X-ray variability of XTEJ1118+480 as a signature of the coupling between the X-ray corona and a jet emitting synchrotron radiation in the optical band.We propose a scenario in which the jet and the X-ray corona are fed by the same energy reservoir where large amounts of accretion power are stored before being channelled into either the jet or the high energy radiation. This time dependent model reproduces the main features of the rapid multi-wavelength variability of XTEJ1118+480. Read More

We examine the disc--jet connection in stellar mass and supermassive black holes by investigating the properties of their compact emission in the hard X-ray and radio bands. We compile a sample of ~100 active galactic nuclei with measured mass, 5 GHz core emission, and 2-10 keV luminosity, together with 8 galactic black holes with a total of about 50 simultaneous observations in the radio and X-ray bands. Using this sample, we study the correlations between the radio (L_R) and the X-ray (L_X) luminosity and the black hole mass (M). Read More

2004Sep

We examine possible phenomenological constraints for the joint evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBH) and their host spheroids. We compare all the available observational data on the redshift evolution of the total stellar mass and star formation rate density in the Universe with the mass and accretion rate density evolution of supermassive black holes, estimated from the hard X-ray selected luminosity function of quasars and active galactic nuclei (AGN) for a given radiative efficiency, \epsilon. We assume that the ratio of the stellar mass in spheroids to the black hole mass density evolves as (1+z)^{-\alpha}, while the ratio of the stellar mass in disks+irregulars to that in spheroids evolves as (1+z)^{-\beta}, and we derive constraints on \alpha, \beta and \epsilon. Read More

I present a new method to unveil the history of cosmic accretion and the build-up of Supermassive Black Holes (SMBH) in the nuclei of galaxies, based on observations of the evolving radio and (hard) X-ray luminosity functions of AGN. The fundamental plane of black hole activity discovered by Merloni, Heinz & Di Matteo (2003) is used as a mass and accretion rate estimator. I adopt the local BH mass function as a boundary condition to integrate backwards in time the continuity equation for the SMBH evolution, neglecting the role of mergers. Read More

We interpret the rapid correlated UV/optical/ X-ray variability of XTE J1118+480 as a signature of the coupling between the X-ray corona and a jet emitting synchrotron radiation in the optical band. We propose a scenario in which the jet and the X-ray corona are fed by the same energy reservoir where large amounts of accretion power are stored before being channelled into either the jet or the high energy radiation. This time dependent model reproduces the main features of the rapid multi-wavelength variability of XTE J1118+480. Read More

2004Feb

I present a new method to unveil the history of cosmic accretion and the build-up of SMBH in the nuclei of galaxies, based on observations of the evolving radio and (hard) X-ray luminosity functions of AGN. The fundamental plane of black hole activity discovered by Merloni, Heinz & Di Matteo (2003) is used as a mass and accretion rate estimator. I adopt the local BH mass function as a boundary condition to integrate backwards in time the continuity equation for the SMBH evolution, neglecting the role of mergers. Read More

Studying a sample of both strongly and weakly active galactic nuclei with measured masses and 5 GHz and 2-10 keV core luminosities, together with a few galactic black holes simultaneously observed in the radio and X-ray bands, Merloni, Heinz, & Di Matteo (2003) showed that the sources are correlated through a ``fundamental plane'' relationship in the three-dimensional (log L_R, log L_X, log M) space. Here I elaborate on how such a relationship can be used to infer directly mass and accretion rate of any black hole given its radio and X-ray fluxes, complementing the information obtained from optical/UV surveys. As an example, I show how the local X-ray and radio luminosity functions, coupled with the black hole mass function derived from the M-\sigma relation, provide us with an accretion rate function. Read More

We examine the disc--jet connection in stellar mass and supermassive black holes by investigating the properties of their compact emission in the X-ray and radio bands. We compile a sample of ~100 active galactic nuclei with measured mass, 5 GHz core emission, and 2-10 keV luminosity, together with 8 galactic black holes with a total of ~50 simultaneous observations in the radio and X-ray bands. Using this sample, we study the correlations between the radio (L_{R}) and the X-ray (L_{X}) luminosity and the black hole mass (M). Read More

Although more than 2000 astronomical gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been detected, the precise progenitor responsible for these events is unknown. The temporal phenomenology observed in GRBs can significantly constrain the different models. Here we analyse the time histories of a sample of bright, long GRBs, searching for the ones exhibiting relatively long (more than 5 per cent of the total burst duration) quiescent times, defined as the intervals between adjacent episodes of emission during which the gamma-rays count rate drops to the background level. Read More

2000Oct

Within the framework of the internal-external shocks model for gamma-ray bursts, we study the various mechanisms that can give rise to quiescent times in the observed gamma-ray light-curves. In particular, we look for the signatures that can provide us with evidence as to whether or not the central engine goes dormant for a period of time comparable to the duration of the gaps. We show that the properties of the prompt gamma-ray and X-ray emission can in principle determine whether the quiescent episodes are due to a modulated relativistic wind or a switching off of the central engine. Read More