Alice K. Harding - NASA/GSFC

Alice K. Harding
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Alice K. Harding
Glenn Dale
United States

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High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (37)
Astrophysics (11)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (6)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (5)
Physics - Plasma Physics (1)
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (1)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (1)

Publications Authored By Alice K. Harding

Polarization measurements provide strong constraints on models for emission from rotation-powered pulsars. We present multiwavelength polarization predictions showing that measurements over a range of frequencies can be particularly important for constraining the emission location, radiation mechanisms and system geometry. The results assume a generic model for emission from the outer magnetosphere and current sheet in which optical to hard X-ray emission is produced by synchrotron radiation from electron-positron pairs and gamma-ray emission is produced by curvature radiation or synchrotron radiation from accelerating primary electrons. Read More

Multiwavelength followup of unidentified Fermi sources has vastly expanded the number of known galactic-field "black widow" and "redback" millisecond pulsar binaries. Focusing on their rotation-powered state, we interpret the radio to X-ray phenomenology in a consistent framework. We advocate the existence of two distinct modes differing in their intrabinary shock orientation, distinguished by the phase-centering of the double-peaked X-ray orbital modulation originating from mildly-relativistic Doppler boosting. Read More

The light curves and spectral properties of more than 200 $\gamma$-ray pulsars have been measured in unsurpassed detail in the eight years since the launch of the hugely successful Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) $\gamma$-ray mission. We performed geometric pulsar light curve modelling using static, retarded vacuum, and offset polar cap (PC) dipole $B$-fields (the latter is characterized by a parameter $\epsilon$), in conjunction with standard two-pole caustic (TPC) and outer gap (OG) emission geometries. In addition to constant-emissivity geometric models, we also considered a slot gap (SG) $E$-field associated with the offset-PC dipole $B$-field and found that its inclusion leads to qualitatively different light curves. Read More

Affiliations: 1GWU, 2GWU, 3ASTRON, 4Rice University, 5GWU, 6NASA/Goddard, 7ASTRON, 8NASA/Goddard, 9The Open University, 10New York University, 11The Open University, 12Sabancı University, 13Beijing Normal University

We analyzed broad-band X-ray and radio data of the magnetar SGR J1935+2154 taken in the aftermath of its 2014, 2015, and 2016 outbursts. The source soft X-ray spectrum <10 keV is well described with a BB+PL or 2BB model during all three outbursts. NuSTAR observations revealed a hard X-ray tail, $\Gamma=0. Read More

Based on the Fermi observational data we reveal meaningful constraints for the dependence of the macroscopic conductivity $(\sigma)$ of dissipative pulsar magnetosphere models on the corresponding spin-down rate, $\dot{\mathcal{E}}$. Our models are refinements of the FIDO (Force-Free Inside, Dissipative Outside) models whose dissipative regions are restricted on the equatorial current-sheet outside the light-cylinder. Taking into account the observed cutoff-energies of all the Fermi-pulsars and assuming that a) the corresponding $\gamma-$ray pulsed emission is due to curvature radiation at the radiation-reaction-limit regime and b) this emission is produced at the equatorial current-sheet near the light-cylinder, we show that the \emph{Fermi}-data provide clear indications about the corresponding accelerating electric-field components. Read More

We performed geometric pulsar light curve modeling using static, retarded vacuum, and offset polar cap (PC) dipole $B$-fields (the latter is characterized by a parameter $\epsilon$), in conjunction with standard two-pole caustic (TPC) and outer gap (OG) emission geometries. The offset-PC dipole $B$-field mimics deviations from the static dipole (which corresponds to $\epsilon=0$). In addition to constant-emissivity geometric models, we also considered a slot gap (SG) $E$-field associated with the offset-PC dipole $B$-field and found that its inclusion leads to qualitatively different light curves. Read More

The first wind nebula around a magnetar was recently discovered in X-rays around Swift~J1834.9$-$0846. We study this magnetar's global energetics and the properties of its particle wind or outflows. Read More

A large number of new "black widow" and "redback" energetic millisecond pulsars with irradiated stellar companions have been discovered through radio and optical searches of unidentified \textit{Fermi} sources. Synchrotron emission, from particles accelerated up to several TeV in the intrabinary shock, exhibits modulation at the binary orbital period. Our simulated double-peaked X-ray light curves modulated at the orbital period, produced by relativistic Doppler-boosting along the intrabinary shock, are found to qualitatively match those observed in many sources. Read More

A large number of new black widow and redback energetic millisecond pulsars with irradiated stellar companions have been discovered through radio searches of unidentified \emph{Fermi} sources. We construct a 3D emission model of these systems to predict the high-energy emission components from particles accelerated to several TeV in the intrabinary shocks, and its predicted modulation at the binary orbital period. Synchrotron emission is expected at X-ray energies and such modulated emission has already been detected by \emph{Chandra} and \emph{XMM-Newton} in some systems. Read More

The most energetic neutron stars, powered by their rotation, are capable of producing pulsed radiation from the radio up to gamma rays with nearly TeV energies. These pulsars are part of the universe of energetic and powerful particle accelerators, using their uniquely fast rotation and formidable magnetic fields to accelerate particles to ultra-relativistic speed. The extreme properties of these stars provide an excellent testing ground, beyond Earth experience, for nuclear, gravitational, and quantum-electrodynamical physics. Read More

Results of a simulation of synchrotron-self Compton (SSC) emission from a rotation-powered pulsar are presented. The radiating particles are assumed to be both accelerated primary electrons and a spectrum of electron-positron pairs produced in cascades near the polar cap. They follow trajectories in a slot gap using 3D force-free magnetic field geometry, gaining pitch angles through resonant cyclotron absorption of radio photons, radiating and scattering synchrotron emission at high altitudes out to and beyond the light cylinder. Read More

Pair cascades from millisecond pulsars (MSPs) may be a primary source of Galactic electrons and positrons that contribute to the increase in positron flux above 10 GeV as observed by PAMELA and AMS-02. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has increased the number of detected gamma-ray MSPs tremendously. Light curve modelling furthermore favours abundant pair production in MSP magnetospheres, so that models of primary cosmic-ray positrons from pulsars should include the contribution from the larger numbers of MSPs and their potentially higher positron output per source. Read More

We explore the emission properties of a dissipative pulsar magnetosphere model introduced by Kalapotharakos et al. (2014), comparing its high energy light curves and spectra, due to curvature radiation, with data collected by the Fermi LAT. The magnetosphere structure is assumed to be near the force-free solution. Read More

XSS J12270-4859 is an X-ray binary associated with the Fermi LAT gamma-ray source 1FGL J1227.9-4852. In 2012 December, this source underwent a transition where the X-ray and optical luminosity dropped and the spectral signatures of an accretion disc disappeared. Read More

Using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT), we obtained high-time-resolution measurements of the full (linear and circular) polarization of the Crab pulsar. Taken at a resolution of 1/8192 of the 34-ms pulse period (i.e. Read More

We compute the patterns of $\gamma$-ray emission due to curvature radiation in dissipative pulsar magnetospheres. Our ultimate goal is to construct macrophysical models that are able to reproduce the observed $\gamma$-ray light-curve phenomenology recently published in the Second Fermi Pulsar Catalog. We apply specific forms of Ohm's law on the open field lines using a broad range for the macroscopic conductivity values that result in solutions ranging, from near-vacuum to near Force-Free. Read More

Affiliations: 1Wash. Univ. in St. Louis, 2NASA/GSFC, 3Rice, 4NASA/GSFC, 5NASA/GSFC, 6NASA/ARC, 7TIFR, India, 8NASA/GSFC, 9NASA/GSFC, 10NASA/GSFC, 11U. Iowa, 12NASA/GSFC, 13JHU, 14Cornell, 15NASA/GSFC, 16MIT, 17Temple, 18NASA/ARC, 19NASA/GSFC, 20NASA/GSFC, 21U. Oula, Finland, 22NCSU, 23NASA/ARC, 24NASA/GSFC, 25NASA/GSFC, 26NASA/GSFC, 27NASA/GSFC, 28NASA/GSFC, 29Nagoya U., Japan, 30Riken U., Japan

In this document, we describe the scientific potential of blazar observations with a X-ray polarimetry mission like GEMS (Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX). We describe five blazar science investigations that such a mission would enable: (i) the structure and the role of magnetic fields in AGN jets, (ii) analysis of the polarization of the synchrotron X-ray emission from AGN jets, (iii) discrimination between synchrotron self-Compton and external Compton models for blazars with inverse Compton emission in the X-ray band, (iv) a precision study of the polarization properties of the X-ray emission from Cen-A, (v) tests of Lorentz Invariance based on X-ray polarimetric observations of blazars. We conclude with a discussion of a straw man observation program and recommended accompanying multiwavelength observations. Read More

Neutron stars are a very diverse population, both in their observational and their physical properties. They prefer to radiate most of their energy at X-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. But whether their emission is powered by rotation, accretion, heat, magnetic fields or nuclear reactions, they are all different species of the same animal whose magnetic field evolution and interior composition remain a mystery. Read More

Affiliations: 1NASA/GSFC, 2NASA/GSFC, 3Rice, 4NASA/GSFC, 5NASA/GSFC, 6NASA/ARC, 7TIFR, India, 8NASA/GSFC, 9NASA/GSFC, 10NASA/GSFC, 11U. Iowa, 12NASA/GSFC, 13Washington U., 14JHU, 15Cornell, 16NASA/GSFC, 17MIT, 18Temple, 19NASA/ARC, 20NASA/GSFC, 21NASA/GSFC, 22U. Oula, Finland, 23NCSU, 24NASA/ARC, 25NASA/GSFC, 26NASA/GSFC, 27NASA/GSFC, 28NASA/GSFC, 29Nagoya U., Japan, 30Riken U., Japan

We present here a summary of the scientific goals behind the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX (GEMS) X-ray polarimetry mission's black hole (BH) observing program. The primary targets can be divided into two classes: stellar-mass galactic BHs in accreting binaries, and super-massive BHs in the centers of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The stellar-mass BHs can in turn be divided into various X-ray spectral states: thermal-dominant (disk), hard (radio jet), and steep power-law (hot corona). Read More

We present preliminary results of a pulsar population synthesis of normal pulsars from the Galactic disk using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to better understand the parameter space of the assumed model. We use the Kuiper test, similar to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, to compare the cumulative distributions of chosen observables of detected radio pulsars with those simulated for various parameters. Our code simulates pulsars at birth using Monte Carlo techniques and evolves them to the present assuming initial spatial, kick velocity, magnetic field, and period distributions. Read More

We investigate the shapes of \gamma-ray pulsar light curves using 3D pulsar magnetosphere models of finite conductivity. These models, covering the entire spectrum of solutions between vacuum and force-free magnetospheres, for the first time afford mapping the GeV emission of more realistic, dissipative pulsar magnetospheres. To this end we generate model light curves following two different approaches: (a) We employ the emission patterns of the slot and outer gap models in the field geometries of magnetospheres with different conductivity \sigma. Read More

Neutron star magnetic fields may have polar caps (PC) that are offset from the dipole axis, through field-line sweepback near the light cylinder or non-symmetric currents within the star. The effects of such offsets on electron-positron pair cascades are investigated, using simple models of dipole magnetic fields with small distortions that shift the PCs by different amounts or directions. Using a Monte Carlo pair cascade simulation, we explore the changes in the pair spectrum, multiplicity and energy flux across the PC, as well as the trends in pair flux and pair energy flux with spin-down luminosity, L_{sd}. Read More

Recent studies have shown that gamma-ray pulsar light curves are very sensitive to the geometry of the pulsar magnetic field. Pulsar magnetic field geometries, such as the retarded vacuum dipole and force-free magnetospheres have distorted polar caps that are offset from the magnetic axis in the direction opposite to rotation. Since this effect is due to the sweepback of field lines near the light cylinder, offset polar caps are a generic property of pulsar magnetospheres and their effects should be included in gamma-ray pulsar light curve modeling. Read More

The high-quality Fermi LAT observations of gamma-ray pulsars have opened a new window to understanding the generation mechanisms of high-energy emission from these systems. The high statistics allow for careful modeling of the light curve features as well as for phase resolved spectral modeling. We modeled the LAT light curves of the Vela and CTA 1 pulsars with simulated high-energy light curves generated from geometrical representations of the outer gap and slot gap emission models, within the vacuum retarded dipole and force-free fields. Read More

Pulsed gamma rays have been detected with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) from more than 20 millisecond pulsars (MSPs), some of which were discovered in radio observations of bright, unassociated LAT sources. We have fit the radio and gamma-ray light curves of 19 LAT-detected MSPs in the context of geometric, outer-magnetospheric emission models assuming the retarded vacuum dipole magnetic field using a Markov chain Monte Carlo maximum likelihood technique. We find that, in many cases, the models are able to reproduce the observed light curves well and provide constraints on the viewing geometries that are in agreement with those from radio polarization measurements. Read More

We report the probable identification of the X-ray counterpart to the gamma-ray pulsar PSR J2021+4026 using imaging with the Chandra X-ray Observatory ACIS and timing analysis with the Fermi satellite. Given the statistical and systematic errors, the positions determined by both satellites are coincident. The X-ray source position is R. Read More

We present the magnetic and electric field structures as well as the currents and charge densities of pulsar magnetospheres which do not obey the ideal condition, ${\bf E \cdot B =0}$. Since the acceleration of particles and the production of radiation requires the presence of an electric field component parallel to the magnetic field, ${\bf E}_\parallel$, the structure of non-Ideal pulsar magnetospheres is intimately related to the production of pulsar radiation. Therefore, knowledge of the structure of non-Ideal pulsar magnetospheres is important because their comparison (including models for the production of radiation) with observations will delineate the physics and the parameters underlying the pulsar radiation problem. Read More

We present our temporal and spectral analyses of 29 bursts from SGR J0501+4516, detected with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope during the 13 days of the source activation in 2008 (August 22 to September 3). We find that the T90 durations of the bursts can be fit with a log-normal distribution with a mean value of ~ 123 ms. We also estimate for the first time event durations of Soft Gamma Repeater (SGR) bursts in photon space (i. Read More

We present a new study of the X-ray spectral properties of the Crab Pulsar. The superb angular resolution of the Chandra X-ray Observatory enables distinguishing the pulsar from the surrounding nebulosity. Analysis of the spectrum as a function of pulse phase allows the least-biased measure of interstellar X-ray extinction due primarily to photoelectric absorption and secondarily to scattering by dust grains in the direction of the Crab Nebula. Read More

We compare population synthesis results for inner and outer magnetosphere emission models with the various characteristics measured in the first LAT pulsar catalogue for both the radio-loud and radio-weak or radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars. We show that all models fail to reproduce the observations: for each model there is a lack of luminous and energetic objects that suggest a non dipolar magnetic field structure or spin-down evolution. The large dispersion that we find in the simulated gamma-ray luminosity versus spin-down power relation does not allow to use the present trend seen in the Fermi data to distinguish among models. Read More

We present results of our pulsar population synthesis of normal pulsars from the Galactic disk using our previously developed computer code. On the same footing, we use slot gap and outer gap models for gamma-ray emission from normal pulsars to obtain statistics of radio-loud and radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars. From recently improved understanding of HII and star forming regions in the Galaxy, we develop a new surface density model of the birth location of neutron stars. Read More

Radio timing observations of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in support of Fermi LAT observations of the gamma-ray sky enhance the sensitivity of high-energy pulsation searches. With contemporaneous ephemerides we have detected gamma-ray pulsations from PSR B1937+21, the first MSP ever discovered, and B1957+20, the first known black-widow system. The two MSPs share a number of properties: they are energetic and distant compared to other gamma-ray MSPs, and both of them exhibit aligned radio and gamma-ray emission peaks, indicating co-located emission regions in the outer magnetosphere of the pulsars. Read More

We present a summary of gamma-ray millisecond pulsar (MSP) observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The radio and gamma-ray light curves of these MSPs have been modeled in the framework of the retarded vacuum dipole magnetic field. Likelihood fitting of the radio and gamma-ray light curves with geometric emission models allows us to give model-dependent confidence contours for the viewing geometry in these systems which are complementary to those from polarization measurements. Read More

We investigate the effect of a distorted neutron star dipole magnetic field on pulsar pair cascade multiplicity and pair death lines. Using a simple model for a distorted dipole field that produces an offset polar cap, we derive the accelerating electric field above the polar cap in space charge limited flow. We find that even a modest azimuthally asymmetric distortion can significantly increase the accelerating electric field on one side of the polar cap and, combined with a smaller field line radius of curvature, leads to larger pair multiplicity. Read More

On August 24th 2008 the new magnetar SGR 0501+4516 (discovered by SWIFT) emitted a bright burst with a pronounced double-peak structure in hard X-rays, reminiscent of the double-peak temporal structure seen in some bright thermonuclear bursts on accreting neutron stars. In the latter case this is due to Photospheric Radius Expansion (PRE): when the flux reaches the Eddington limit, the photosphere expands and cools so that emission becomes softer and drops temporarily out of the X-ray band, re-appearing as the photosphere settles back down. We consider the factors necessary to generate double-peaked PRE events, and show that such a mechanism could plausibly operate in magnetar bursts, despite the vastly different emission process. Read More

The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has discovered many gamma-ray pulsars, both as radio-loud objects and radio-quiet or radio-weak pulsars that have been identified through blind period searches. The latter presumably have gamma-ray beams originating from high altitudes in the magnetosphere, resulting in little or no overlap with the radio beam. The exponential cut-off of the emission at high energy also points to a medium- or high-altitude origin of the gamma rays. Read More

We present results of our pulsar population synthesis of normal pulsars from the Galactic disk using our previously developed Monte-Carlo code. From our studies of observed radio pulsars that have clearly identifiable core and cone components, in which we fit the polarization sweep as well as the pulse profiles in order to constrain the viewing geometry, we develop a model describing the luminosity and ratio of radio core-to-cone peak fluxes. In this model, short period pulsars are more cone-dominated. Read More

Affiliations: 1Cornell, 2Toronto, 3UCB, 4Columbia, 5MSU, 6Cornell, 7GSFC, 8McGill, 9Caltech, 10WVU, 11WVU, 12Stanford, 13Princeton, 14GSFC

We highlight recent theoretical and observational progress in several areas of neutron star astrophysics, and discuss the prospect for advances in the next decade. Read More

We propose a simple analytic model for the innermost (within the light cylinder of canonical radius) structure of open-magnetic-field lines of a rotating neutron star (NS) with relativistic outflow of charged particles (electrons/positrons) and arbitrary angle between the NS spin and magnetic axes. We present the self-consistent solution of Maxwell's equations for the magnetic field and electric current in the pair-starved regime where the density of electron-positron plasma generated above the pulsar polar cap is not sufficient to completely screen the accelerating electric field and thus establish the E \cdot B = 0 condition above the pair-formation front up to very high altitudes within the light cylinder. The proposed model may provide a theoretical framework for developing a refined model of the global pair-starved pulsar magnetosphere. Read More

The paradigm for Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) has evolved recently with the discovery by INTEGRAL and RXTE of flat, hard X-ray components in three AXPs. These non-thermal spectral components differ dramatically from the steeper quasi-power-law tails seen in the classic X-ray band in these sources, and can naturally be attributed to activity in the magnetosphere. Resonant, magnetic Compton upscattering is a candidate mechanism for generating this new component, since it is very efficient in the strong fields present near AXP surfaces. Read More

We present results of a 3D model of optical to gamma-ray emission from the slot gap accelerator of a rotation-powered pulsar. Primary electrons accelerating to high-altitudes in the unscreened electric field of the slot gap reach radiation-reaction limited Lorentz factors of 2 x 10^7, while electron-positron pairs from lower-altitude cascades flow along field lines interior to the slot gap. The curvature, synchrotron and inverse Compton radiation of both primary electrons and pairs produce a broad spectrum of emission from infra-red to GeV energies. Read More

Forty years after the discovery of rotation-powered pulsars, we still do not understand many aspects of their pulsed emission. In the last few years there have been some fundamental developments in acceleration and emission models. I will review both the basic physics of the models as well as the latest developments in understanding the high-energy emission of rotation-powered pulsars, with particular emphasis on the polar-cap and slot-gap models. Read More

We present results of a population synthesis of millisecond pulsars from the Galactic disk. Excluding globular clusters, we model the spatial distribution of millisecond pulsars by assuming their birth in the Galactic disk with a random kick velocity and evolve them to the present within the Galactic potential. We assume that normal and millisecond pulsars are standard candles described with a common radio luminosity model that invokes a new relationship between radio core and cone emission suggested by recent studies. Read More

Rotation-powered pulsars are excellent laboratories for study of particle acceleration as well as fundamental physics of strong gravity, strong magnetic fields, high densities and relativity. I will review the outstanding questions in pulsar physics and the prospects for finding answers with GLAST LAT observations. LAT observations should significantly increase the number of detected radio-loud and radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars, including millisecond pulsars, giving much better statistics for elucidating population characteristics, will measure the high-energy spectrum and the shape of spectral cutoffs and determine pulse profiles for a variety of pulsars of different age. Read More

Radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars like Geminga may account for a number of the unidentified EGRET sources in the Galaxy. The number of Geminga-like pulsars is very sensitive to the geometry of both the gamma-ray and radio beams. Recent studies of the shape and polarization of pulse profiles of young radio pulsars have provided evidence that their radio emission originates in wide cone beams at altitudes that are a significant fraction (1 -10%) of their light cylinder radius. Read More

We present results of our pulsar population synthesis of ordinary isolated and millisecond pulsars in the Galactic plane. Over the past several years, a program has been developed to simulate pulsar birth, evolution and emission using Monte Carlo techniques. We have added to the program the capability to simulate millisecond pulsars, which are old, recycled pulsars with extremely short periods. Read More

A significant new development in the study of Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) has been the recent discovery by INTEGRAL and RXTE of flat, hard X-ray components in three AXPs. These non-thermal spectral components differ dramatically from the steeper quasi-power-law tails seen in the classic X-ray band in these sources. A prime candidate mechanism for generating this new component is resonant, magnetic Compton upscattering. Read More


There has recently been growing evidence for the existence of neutron stars possessing magnetic fields with strengths that exceed the quantum critical field strength of $4.4 \times 10^{13}$ G, at which the cyclotron energy equals the electron rest mass. Such evidence has been provided by new discoveries of radio pulsars having very high spin-down rates and by observations of bursting gamma-ray sources termed magnetars. Read More

The number of pulsars with detected emission at X-ray and gamma-ray energies has been steadily growing, showing that beams of high-energy particles are commonly accelerated in pulsar magnetospheres, even though the location and number of acceleration sites remain unsettled. Acceleration near the magnetic poles, close to the polar cap surface or to higher altitudes in the slot gap along the last open field lines, involves an electric field component due to inertial-frame dragging. Acceleration can also take place in the outer magnetosphere where charge depletion due to global currents causes a large electric field along the magnetic field lines. Read More