Alexander S. Sakharov - CERN & Zurich, ETH

Alexander S. Sakharov
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Alexander S. Sakharov
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CERN & Zurich, ETH
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High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (26)
 
High Energy Physics - Theory (12)
 
High Energy Physics - Experiment (11)
 
Astrophysics (9)
 
Nuclear Experiment (8)
 
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (7)
 
Nuclear Theory (6)
 
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (4)
 
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (4)
 
Computer Science - Computational Complexity (1)
 
Computer Science - Logic in Computer Science (1)
 
Mathematics - General Mathematics (1)
 
Mathematics - Logic (1)

Publications Authored By Alexander S. Sakharov

We consider the hypothesis that the dark matter consists of ultra-light bosons residing in the state of a Bose-Einstein condensate, which behaves as a single coherent wave rather than as individual particles. In galaxies, spatial distribution of scalar field dark matter can be described by the relativistic Klein-Gordon equation on a background space-time with Schwarzschild metric. In such a setup, the equation of state of scalar field dark matter is found to be changing along with galactocentric distance from dust-like ($p=0$), inside the galactic halo, to vacuum-like ($p=-\rho$), in intergalactic space. Read More

The photon mass, $m_\gamma$, can in principle be constrained using measurements of the dispersion measures (DMs) of fast radio bursts (FRBs), once the FRB redshifts are known. The DM of the repeating FRB 121102 is known to $< 1$\%, a host galaxy has now been identified with high confidence,and its redshift, $z$, has now been determined with high accuracy: $z = 0.19273(8)$. Read More

The dependence on centrality, or on the number of nucleon participants, of the midrapidity density of charged particles measured in heavy-ion collisions at the collision energy of about 20 GeV at RHIC to the highest LHC energy of 5 TeV is investigated within the recently proposed effective-energy approach. This approach relates multihadron production in different types of collisions by combining, under the proper scaling of the collision energy, the constituent quark picture with Landau relativistic hydrodynamics. The measurements are shown to be well described based on the similarity of multihadron production process in (anti)proton-proton interactions and heavy-ion collisions driven by the centrality-dependent effective energy of participants. Read More

The frequency-dependent time delays in fast radio bursts (FRBs) can be used to constrain the photon mass, if the FRB redshifts are known, but the similarity between the frequency dependences of dispersion due to plasma effects and a photon mass complicates the derivation of a limit on $m_\gamma$. The dispersion measure (DM) of FRB 150418 is known to $\sim 0.1$%, and there is a claim to have measured its redshift with an accuracy of $\sim 2$%, but the strength of the constraint on $m_\gamma$ is limited by uncertainties in the modelling of the host galaxy and the Milky Way, as well as possible inhomogeneities in the intergalactic medium (IGM). Read More

The possible gamma ray burst occurred in location and temporal consistence with gravitational wave event GW150914, as reported by Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), offers a new way of constraining models with extra dimensions. Using the time delay in arrival of the gamma ray transient observed by Fermi GBM relative to the gravitational waves event triggered by the LIGO detectors we investigate the size of the spherical brane-universe expanding in multi-dimensional space-time. It is shown that a joint observation of gravitational waves in association with gamma ray burst can provide a very stringent bound on the spatial curvature of the brain. Read More

Unstructured data have to be parsed in order to become usable. The complexity of grammar notations and the difficulty of grammar debugging limit the use of parsers for data preprocessing. We introduce a notation in which grammars are defined by simply dividing terminals into predefined classes and then splitting elements of some classes into multiple layered sub-groups. Read More

The multihadron production in nucleus-nucleus collisions and its interrelation with that in (anti)proton-proton interactions are studied by exploring the charged particle mean multiplicity collision-energy and centrality dependencies in the measurements to date. The study is performed in the framework of the recently proposed effective-energy approach which, under the proper scaling of the collision energy, combines the constituent quark picture with Landau relativistic hydrodynamics counting for the centrality-defined effective energy of participants and relating different types of collisions. Within this approach, the multiplicity energy dependence and the pseudorapidity spectra from the most central nuclear collisions are well reproduced. Read More

The dependencies of charged particle pseudorapidity density and transverse energy pseudorapidity density at midrapidity on the collision energy and on the number of nucleon participants, or centrality, measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in the energy range spanning a few GeV to a few TeV per nucleon. The study is based on the earlier proposed model, combining the constituent quark picture together with Landau relativistic hydrodynamics and shown to interrelate the measurements from different types of collisions. Within this picture, the dependence on the number of participants in heavy-ion collisions are found to be well described in terms of the effective energy defined as a centrality-dependent fraction of the collision energy. Read More

The dependencies of charged particle pseudorapidity density and transverse energy pseudorapidity density at midrapidity on the collision energy and on the number of nucleon participants, or centrality, measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in the energy range spanning a few GeV to a few TeV per nucleon. The model in which the multiparticle production is driven by the dissipating effective energy of participants is introduced. The model is based on the earlier proposed approach, combining the constituent quark picture together with Landau relativistic hydrodynamics shown to interrelate the measurements from different types of collisions. Read More

We discuss the prospects for improved upper limits on neutrino masses that may be provided by a core-collapse supernova explosion in our galaxy, if it exhibits time variations in the neutrino emissions on the scale of a few milliseconds as suggested by recent two-dimensional simulations. Analyzing simulations of such neutrino emissions using the wavelet technique adopted in [1], we find that an upper limit m_nu ~ 0.14 eV could be established at the 95% confidence level if the time variations in emissions were to be preserved during neutrino propagation to the Earth. Read More

Supernova explosions provide the most sensitive probes of neutrino propagation, such as the possibility that neutrino velocities might be affected by the foamy structure of space-time thought to be generated by quantum-gravitational (QG) effects. Recent two-dimensional simulations of the neutrino emissions from core-collapse supernovae suggest that they might exhibit variations in time on the scale of a few milliseconds. We analyze simulations of such neutrino emissions using a wavelet technique, and consider the limits that might be set on a linear or quadratic violation of Lorentz invariance in the group velocities of neutrinos of different energies, v/c = [1 \pm (E/M_{nuLV1})] or [1 \pm (E/M_{\nuLV2})^2], if variations on such short time scales were to be observed, where the mass scales M_{nuLVi} might appear in models of quantum gravity. Read More

The energy-dependence of charged particle mean multiplicity and pseudorapidity density at midrapidity measured in nucleus-nucleus and (anti)proton-proton collisions are studied in the entire available energy range. The study is performed using a model, which considers the multiparticle production process according to the dissipating energy of the participants and their types, namely a combination of the constituent quark picture together with Landau relativistic hydrodynamics. The model reveals interrelations between the variables under study measured in nucleus-nucleus and nucleon-nucleon collisions. Read More

Experimental data suggest the existence of a minimal length scale in annihilation process for the reaction e+e- --> gamma gamma (gamma). Nonlinear electrodynamics coupled to gravity and satisfying the weak energy condition predicts, for an arbitrary gauge invariant lagrangian, the existence of a spinning charged electromagnetic soliton asymptotically Kerr-Newman for a distant observer with a gyromagnetic ratio g=2. Its internal structure includes an equatorial disk of de Sitter vacuum which has properties of a perfect conductor and ideal diamagnetic, and displays superconducting behavior within a single spinning soliton. Read More

It has been suggested that the interactions of energetic particles with the foamy structure of space-time thought to be generated by quantum-gravitational (QG) effects might violate Lorentz invariance, so that they do not propagate at a universal speed of light. We consider the limits that may be set on a linear or quadratic violation of Lorentz invariance in the propagation of energetic neutrinos, v/c=[1 +- (E/M_\nuQG1)] or [1 +- (E/M_\nu QG2}^2], using data from supernova explosions and the OPERA long-baseline neutrino experiment. Read More

Quantum gravity may involve models with stochastic fluctuations of the associated metric field, around some fixed background value. Such stochastic models of gravity may induce decoherence for matter propagating in such fluctuating space time. In most cases, this leads to fewer neutrinos of all active flavours being detected in a long baseline experiment as compared to three-flavour standard neutrino oscillations. Read More

A polarized gamma ray emission spread over a sufficiently wide energy band from a strongly magnetized astrophysical object like gamma ray bursts (GRBs) offers an opportunity to test the hypothesis of axion like particles (ALPs). Based on evidences of polarized gamma ray emission detected in several gamma ray bursts we estimated the level of ALPs induced dichroism, which could take place in the magnetized fireball environment of a GRB. This allows to estimate the sensitivity of polarization measurements of GRBs to the ALP-photon coupling. Read More

It has been suggested that the interactions of energetic particles with the foamy structure of space-time thought to be generated by quantum-gravitational (QG) effects might violate Lorentz invariance, so that they do not propagate at a universal speed of light. We consider the limits that may be set on a linear or quadratic violation of Lorentz invariance in the propagation of energetic neutrinos, v/c=[1 +- (E/M_\nuQG1)] or [1 +- (E/M_\nu QG2}^2], using data from supernova explosions and the OPERA long-baseline neutrino experiment. Using the SN1987a neutrino data from the Kamioka II, IMB and Baksan experiments, we set the limits M_\nuQG1 > 2. Read More

Quantum decoherence, the evolution of pure states into mixed states, may be a feature of quantum-gravity models. In most cases, such models lead to fewer neutrinos of all active flavours being detected in a long baseline experiment as compared to three-flavour standard neutrino oscillations. We discuss the potential of the CNGS and J-PARC beams in constraining models of quantum-gravity induced decoherence using neutrino oscillations as a probe. Read More

We argue that in fat brane-world scenarios the light propagating in vacuum will, because of massive ``Kaluza-Klein'' (KK) excitations, experience a refraction. The motion of a photon inside a fat brane can be decomposed in the longitudinal and transverse directions with respect to the surface of the brane. Since the light observable propagation is related only with the longitudinal motion, the observed speed of light depends on the value of the momentum transverse fraction contributing as the massive KK excitations. Read More

We consider multihadron production processes in different types of collisions in the framework of the picture based on dissipating energy of participants and their types. In particular, the similarities of such bulk observables like the charged particle mean multiplicity and the pseudorapidity density at midrapidity measured in nucleus-nucleus, (anti)proton-proton and electron-positron interactions are analysed. Within the description proposed a good agreement with the measurements in a wide range of nuclear collision energies from AGS to RHIC is obtained. Read More

2005Oct

We constrain the possibility of a non-trivial refractive index in free space corresponding to an energy-dependent velocity of light: c(E) \simeq c_0 (1 - E/M), where M is a mass scale that might represent effect of quantum-gravitational space-time foam, using the arrival times of sharp features observed in the intensities of radiation with different energies from a large sample of gamma-ray bursters (GRBs) with known redshifts. We use wavelet techniques to identify genuine features, which we confirm in simulations with artificial added noise. Using the weighted averages of the time-lags calculated using correlated features in all the GRB light curves, we find a systematic tendency for more energetic photons to arrive earlier. Read More

We study the regularities in the multiparticle production data obtained from different types of collisions indicating the universality of the hadroproduction process. The similarities of such bulk variables like the charged particle mean multiplicity and the pseudorapidity density at midrapidity measured in nucleus-nucleus, (anti)proton-proton and e+e- interactions are analysed according to the dissipating energy of participants and their types. This approach shows a good agreement with the measurements in a wide range of nuclear collision energies from AGS to RHIC. Read More

Intuitionistic logic extended with decidable propositional atoms combines classical properties in its propositional part and intuitionistic properties for derivable formulas not containing propositional symbols. Sequent calculus is used as a framework for investigating this extension. Admissibility of cut is retained. Read More

We describe a mechanism of the primordial black holes formation that can explain the existence of a population of supermassive black holes in galactic bulges. The mechanism is based on the formation of black holes from closed domain walls. The origin of such domain walls could be a result of the evolution of an effectively massless scalar field during inflation. Read More

A decision procedure for detecting valid propositional formulas is presented. It is based on the Davis-Putnam method and deals with propositional formulas that are initially converted to negational normal form. This procedure splits variables but, in contrast to other decision procedures based on the Davis-Putnam method, it does not branch. Read More

Quantum fluctuations of a complex, baryonic charged scalar field caused by inflation can generate large domains, which convert later into antimatter regions. As a result the Universe can become globally matter-dominated, with minor contribution of antimatter regions. The distribution and evolution of such antimatter regions could cause every galaxy to be a harbour of an anti-star globular cluster. Read More

2001Nov

The whole set of astrophysical data indicates that our Universe is globally baryon asymmetrical. Nevertheless a possibility of existence of relatively small amount of sufficiently large antimatter regions is not excluded. Such regions can survive the annihilation with surrounding matter only in the case if their sizes exceed a certain scale. Read More

We review the experimental limits on those hypothetical interactions where the fundamental particles could exhibit non point-like behavior. In particular we have focused on the QED reaction measuring the differential cross sections for the process $ \EEGG $ at energies around 91 GeV and 209 GeV with data collected from the L3 detector from 1991 to 2001. With a global fit L3 set lower limits at $ 95 % $ CL on a contact interaction energy scale parameter $\Lambda > 1. Read More

A new mechanism describing the formation of protogalaxies is proposed, which is based on the second- order phase transition in the inflation stage and the domain wall formation upon the end of inflation. The presence of closed domain walls with the size markedly exceeding the cosmological horizon at the instant of their formation and the wall collapse in the postinflation epoch (when the wall size becomes comparable with the cosmological horizon), which leads to the formation of massive black hole clusters that can serve as nuclei for the future galaxies. The black hole mass distributions obtained do not contradict the available experimental data. Read More

The existence of macroscopic regions with antibaryon excess in the matter - dominated Universe is a possible consequence of the evolution of baryon charged, pseudo - Nambu - Goldstone field with lepton number violating couplings. Such regions can survive the annihilation with surrounding matter only in the case if their sizes exceeds the critical surviving size. The evolution of survived antimatter - regions with high original antibaryon density inside results in the formation of globular clusters, which is made out from antimatter stars. Read More

We discuss the evolution of U(1) symmetric scalar field at the inflation epoch with a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone tilt revealing after the end of exponential expansion of the Universe. The U(1) symmetry is supposed to be associated with baryon charge. It is shown that quantum fluctuations lead in natural way to baryon dominated Universe with antibaryon excess regions. Read More