Adi Zitrin - Tel Aviv University

Adi Zitrin
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Adi Zitrin
Tel Aviv University
Tel Aviv-Yafo

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Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (41)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (21)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (2)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (1)

Publications Authored By Adi Zitrin

Since galaxy clusters sit at the high-end of the mass function, the number of galaxy clusters both massive and concentrated enough to yield particularly large Einstein radii poses useful constraints on cosmological and structure formation models. To date, less than a handful of clusters are known to have Einstein radii exceeding $\sim40$" (for a source at $z_{s}\simeq2$, nominally). Here, we report an addition to that list of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) selected cluster, PLCK G287. Read More

Multi-wavelength techniques can probe the distribution and the physical properties of baryons and dark matter in galaxy clusters from the inner regions out to the peripheries. We present a full three-dimensional analysis combining strong and weak lensing, X-ray surface brightness and temperature, and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. The method is applied to MACS J1206. Read More

We present a joint analysis of Chandra X-ray observations, Bolocam thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect observations, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) strong lensing data, and HST and Subaru Suprime-Cam weak lensing data. The multiwavelength dataset is used to constrain parametric models for the distribution of dark and baryonic matter in a sample of six massive galaxy clusters selected from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). For five of the six clusters, the multiwavelength dataset is well described by a relatively simple model that assumes spherical symmetry, hydrostatic equilibrium, and entirely thermal pressure support. Read More

While the Lyman-$\alpha$ ($\mathrm{Ly}\alpha$) emission line serves as an important tool in the study of galaxies at $z\lesssim 6$, finding Ly$\alpha$ emitters (LAE) at significantly higher redshifts has been more challenging, probably because of the increasing neutrality of the intergalactic medium above $z\sim6$. Galaxies with extremely high rest-frame Ly$\alpha$ equivalent widths, EW(Ly$\alpha$) $\gtrsim 150$ \AA{}, at $z>6$ are good candidates for Ly$\alpha$ follow-up observations, and can stand out in multiband imaging surveys because of their unusual colors. We have conducted a photometric search for such objects in the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH), and report here the identification of three likely gravitationally-lensed images of a single LAE candidate at $z\sim6. Read More

We present the first strong-lensing analysis of the massive galaxy cluster MACS J1319.9+7003 (z=0.33, also known as Abell 1722), as part of our ongoing effort to analyze massive clusters with archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. Read More

We present a light-traces-mass (LTM) strong-lensing model of the massive lensing cluster MACS J2135.2-0102 ($z$=0.33; hereafter MACS2135), known in part for hosting the Cosmic Eye galaxy lens. Read More

The fraction of ionizing photons escaping from high-redshift star-forming galaxies remains a key obstacle in evaluating whether galaxies were the primary agents of cosmic reionization. We previously proposed using the covering fraction of low-ionization gas, measured via deep absorption line spectroscopy, as a proxy. We now present a significant update, sampling seven gravitationally-lensed sources at $4Read More

We discuss new Keck/MOSFIRE spectroscopic observations of four luminous galaxies at z~7-9 selected to have intense optical line emission by Roberts-Borsani et al. (2016). Previous follow-up has revealed Lyman-alpha in two of the four galaxies. Read More

Morphology is often used to infer the state of relaxation of galaxy clusters. The regularity, symmetry, and degree to which a cluster is centrally concentrated inform quantitative measures of cluster morphology. The Cluster Lensing and Supernova survey with Hubble Space Telescope (CLASH) used weak and strong lensing to measure the distribution of matter within a sample of 25 clusters, 20 of which were deemed to be relaxed based on their X-ray morphology and alignment of the X-ray emission with the BCG. Read More

We developed an algorithm to find and characterize gravitationally lensed galaxies (arcs) to perform a comparison of the observed and simulated arc abundance. Observations are from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Simulated CLASH images are created using the MOKA package and also clusters selected from the high resolution, hydrodynamical simulations, MUSIC, over the same mass and redshift range as the CLASH sample. Read More

Strong gravitational lensing is a powerful tool for resolving the high energy universe. We combine the temporal resolution of Fermi-LAT, the angular resolution of radio telescopes, and the independently and precisely known Hubble constant from Planck, to resolve the spatial origin of gamma-ray flares in the strongly lensed source B2 0218+35. The lensing model achieves 1 milliarcsecond spatial resolution of the source at gamma-ray energies. Read More

We searched for z > 7 Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) in the optical-to-mid-infrared Hubble Frontier Field and associated parallel field observations of the strong-lensing cluster MACS J0416-2403. We discovered 22 candidates, of which six lie at z > 9 and one lies at z > 10. Based on the Hubble and Spitzer photometry, all have secure photometric redshifts and a negligible probability of being at lower redshifts, according to their peak probability ratios, R. Read More

We discuss spatially resolved emission line spectroscopy secured for a total sample of 15 gravitationally lensed star-forming galaxies at a mean redshift of $z\simeq2$ based on Keck laser-assisted adaptive optics observations undertaken with the recently-improved OSIRIS integral field unit (IFU) spectrograph. By exploiting gravitationally lensed sources drawn primarily from the CASSOWARY survey, we sample these sub-L$^{\ast}$ galaxies with source-plane resolutions of a few hundred parsecs ensuring well-sampled 2-D velocity data and resolved variations in the gas-phase metallicity. Such high spatial resolution data offers a critical check on the structural properties of larger samples derived with coarser sampling using multiple-IFU instruments. Read More

We present a comprehensive analysis of strong-lensing, weak-lensing shear and magnification data for a sample of 16 X-ray-regular and 4 high-magnification galaxy clusters selected from the CLASH survey. Our analysis combines constraints from 16-band HST observations and wide-field multi-color imaging taken primarily with Subaru/Suprime-Cam. We reconstruct surface mass density profiles of individual clusters from a joint analysis of the full lensing constraints, and determine masses and concentrations for all clusters. Read More

We report the discovery of Lyman-alpha emission (Ly$\alpha$) in the bright galaxy EGSY-2008532660 (hereafter EGSY8p7) using the MOSFIRE spectrograph at the Keck Observatory. First reported by Roberts-Borsani et al. (2015), it was selected for spectroscopic observations because of its photometric redshift ($z_{phot}=8. Read More

We report results of a search for CIII] $\lambda \lambda$1907,1909 {\AA} emission using Keck's MOSFIRE spectrograph in a sample of 7 $z_{phot}\sim7-8$ candidates ($H\sim27$) lensed by the Hubble Frontier Field cluster Abell 2744. Earlier work has suggested the promise of using the CIII] doublet for redshift confirmation of galaxies in the reionization era given $Ly\alpha$ ($\lambda$1216 {\AA}) is likely attenuated by the neutral intergalactic medium. The primary challenge of this approach is the feasibility of locating CIII] emission without advanced knowledge of the spectroscopic redshift. Read More

We report on our first set of spectroscopic Hubble Space Telescope observations of the z~11 candidate galaxy strongly lensed by the MACSJ0647.7+7015 galaxy cluster. The three lensed images are faint and we show that these early slitless grism observations are of sufficient depth to investigate whether this high-redshift candidate, identified by its strong photometric break at ~1. Read More

We utilize the CLASH (Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble) observations of 25 clusters to search for extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs). The selections are carried out in two central bands: F105W (Y105) and F125W (J125), as the flux of the central bands could be enhanced by the presence of [O III] 4959, 5007 at redshift of about 0.93-1. Read More

Affiliations: 1UCB, 2JHU, 3UCLA, 4Illinois, 5STScI, 6UCSB, 7Caltech, 8UCLA, 9STScI, 10NYU/AMNH, 11UCB, 12Rutgers, 13JHU/STScI, 14UCD, 15Arizona, 16Chicago, 17UCLA, 18DARK/Stanford, 19Melbourne, 20DARK, 21IAP, 22INAF-OAR, 23Caltech, 24LCOGT/UC Santa Barbara, 25UCLA, 26STScI, 27Carnegie Obs., 28Rutgers, 29GSFC/UMD, 30UCB, 31UCB/ANU

In 1964, Refsdal hypothesized that a supernova whose light traversed multiple paths around a strong gravitational lens could be used to measure the rate of cosmic expansion. We report the discovery of such a system. In Hubble Space Telescope imaging, we have found four images of a single supernova forming an Einstein cross configuration around a redshift z=0. Read More

Population III galaxies are predicted to exist at high redshifts and may be rendered sufficiently bright for detection with current telescopes when gravitationally lensed by a foreground galaxy cluster. Population III galaxies that exhibit strong Lya emission should furthermore be identifiable from broadband photometry because of their unusual colors. Here, we report on a search for such objects at z > 6 in the imaging data from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH), covering 25 galaxy clusters in 16 filters. Read More

We present results from a comprehensive lensing analysis in HST data, of the complete CLASH cluster sample. We identify new multiple-images previously undiscovered allowing improved or first constraints on the cluster inner mass distributions and profiles. We combine these strong-lensing constraints with weak-lensing shape measurements within the HST FOV to jointly constrain the mass distributions. Read More

We examine the latest data on the cluster MACSJ0717.5+3745 from the Hubble Frontier Fields campaign. The critically lensed area is the largest known of any lens and very irregular making it a challenge for parametric modelling. Read More

The deflection angles of lensed sources increase with their distance behind a given lens. We utilize this geometric effect to corroborate the $z_{phot}\simeq9.8$ photometric redshift estimate of a faint near-IR dropout, triply-imaged by the massive galaxy cluster Abell 2744 in deep Hubble Frontier Fields images. Read More

We present profiles of temperature (Tx), gas mass, and hydrostatic mass estimated from new and archival X-ray observations of CLASH clusters. We compare measurements derived from XMM and Chandra observations with one another and compare both to gravitational lensing mass profiles derived with CLASH HST and ground-based lensing data. Radial profiles of Chandra and XMM electron density and enclosed gas mass are nearly identical, indicating that differences in hydrostatic masses inferred from X-ray observations arise from differences in Tx measurements. Read More

The Frontier Fields program is obtaining deep Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope images of new "blank" fields and nearby fields gravitationally lensed by massive galaxy clusters. The Hubble images of the lensed fields are revealing nJy sources (AB mag > 31), the faintest galaxies yet observed. In this paper, we present high-redshift (z > 6) number count predictions for the full program and candidates in three of the first Hubble Frontier Fields images. Read More

A pressureless scenario for the Dark Matter (DM) fluid is a widely adopted hypothesis, despite the absence of a direct observational evidence. According to general relativity, the total mass-energy content of a system shapes the gravitational potential well, but different test particles perceive this potential in different ways depending on their properties. Cluster galaxy velocities, being $\ll$c, depend solely on the gravitational potential, whereas photon trajectories reflect the contributions from the gravitational potential plus a relativistic-pressure term that depends on the cluster mass. Read More

We discuss how Type Ia supernovae (SNe) strongly magnified by foreground galaxy clusters should be self-consistently treated when used in samples fitted for the cosmological parameters. While the cluster lens magnification of a SN can be well constrained from sets of multiple images of various background galaxies with measured redshifts, its value is typically dependent on the fiducial set of cosmological parameters used to construct the mass model to begin with. In such cases, one should not naively demagnify the observed SN luminosity by the model magnification into the expected Hubble diagram, which would then create a bias, but take into account the cosmological parameters a-priori chosen to construct the mass model. Read More

Affiliations: 1Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, Taiwan, R.O.C, 2Fisika Teorikoa, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea UPV/EHU, Bilbao, Spain, 3Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taiwan, 4Universitat Heidelberg, Zentrum fur Astronomie, Institut fur Theoretische Astrophysik, Philosophenweg, Heidelberg, Germany, 5School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Israel, 6School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Israel

We show that the fast moving component of the "bullet cluster" (1E0657-56) can induce potentially resolvable redshift differences between multiply-lensed images of background galaxies. The moving cluster effect can be expressed as the scalar product of the lensing deflection angle with the tangential velocity of the mass components, and it is maximal for clusters colliding in the plane of the sky with velocities boosted by their mutual gravity. The bullet cluster is likely to be the best candidate for the first measurement of this effect due to the large collision velocity and because the lensing deflection and the cluster fields can be calculated in advance. Read More

In this work we analyze the mass distribution of MACSJ1206.2-0847, especially focusing on the halo properties of its cluster members. The cluster appears relaxed in its X-ray emission, but has significant amounts of intracluster light which is not centrally concentrated, suggesting that galaxy-scale interactions are still ongoing despite the overall relaxed state. Read More

We present the first strong-lensing (SL) analysis of the galaxy cluster ACT-CL J0102-4915 (\emph{El Gordo}), in recent \emph{HST}/ACS images, revealing a prominent strong lens at a redshift of $z=0.87$. This finding adds to the already-established unique properties of \emph{El Gordo}: it is the most massive, hot, X-ray luminous, and bright Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect cluster at $z\gtrsim0. Read More

We characterise the typical offset between the Dark Matter (DM) projected centre and the Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) in 10,000 SDSS clusters. To place constraints on the centre of DM, we use an automated strong-lensing analysis, mass-modelling technique which is based on the well-tested assumption that light traces mass. The cluster galaxies are modelled with a steep power-law, and the DM component is obtained by smoothing the galaxy distribution fitting a low-order 2D polynomial (via spline interpolation), while probing a whole range of polynomial degrees and galaxy power laws. Read More

We show the effectiveness of strong lensing in the characterisation of Lyman continuum emission from faint L<~0.1L* star-forming galaxies at redshift >~ 3. Past observations of L>~L* galaxies at redshift >~3 have provided upper limits of the average escape fraction of ionising radiation of fesc~5%. Read More

Hubble Space Telescope images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2261, obtained as part of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble, show that the brightest galaxy in the cluster, A2261-BCG, has the largest core yet detected in any galaxy. The cusp radius of A2261-BCG is 3.2 kpc, twice as big as the next largest core known, and ~3x bigger than those typically seen in the most luminous BCGs. Read More

The early Universe at redshift z\sim6-11 marks the reionization of the intergalactic medium, following the formation of the first generation of stars. However, those young galaxies at a cosmic age of \lesssim 500 million years (Myr, at z \gtrsim 10) remain largely unexplored as they are at or beyond the sensitivity limits of current large telescopes. Gravitational lensing by galaxy clusters enables the detection of high-redshift galaxies that are fainter than what otherwise could be found in the deepest images of the sky. Read More

Extensive surveys of galaxy clusters motivate us to assess the likelihood of cluster-cluster lensing (CCL), namely, gravitational-lensing of a background cluster by a foreground cluster. We briefly describe the characteristics of CCLs in optical, X-ray and SZ measurements, and calculate their predicted numbers for $\Lambda$CDM parameters and a viable range of cluster mass functions and their uncertainties. The predicted number of CCLs in the strong-lensing regime varies from several ($<10$) to as high as a few dozen, depending mainly on whether lensing triaxiality bias is accounted for, through the c-M relation. Read More

The Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) is a 524-orbit multi-cycle treasury program to use the gravitational lensing properties of 25 galaxy clusters to accurately constrain their mass distributions. The survey, described in detail in this paper, will definitively establish the degree of concentration of dark matter in the cluster cores, a key prediction of CDM. The CLASH cluster sample is larger and less biased than current samples of space-based imaging studies of clusters to similar depth, as we have minimized lensing-based selection that favors systems with overly dense cores. Read More

We present results from strong-lens modelling of 10,000 SDSS clusters, to establish the universal distribution of Einstein radii. Detailed lensing analyses have shown that the inner mass distribution of clusters can be accurately modelled by assuming light traces mass, successfully uncovering large numbers of multiple-images. Approximate critical curves and the effective Einstein radius of each cluster can therefore be readily calculated, from the distribution of member galaxies and scaled by their luminosities. Read More

We outline our methods for obtaining high precision mass profiles, combining independent weak-lensing distortion, magnification, and strong-lensing measurements. For massive clusters the strong and weak lensing regimes contribute equal logarithmic coverage of the radial profile. The utility of high-quality data is limited by the cosmic noise from large scale structure along the line of sight. Read More

We investigate the nature of objects in a complete sample of 28 galaxies selected from the first sky area fully covered by ALFALFA, being well-detected and having HI profiles wider than 550 km/s. The selection does not use brightness, morphology, or any other property derived from optical or other spectral bands. We investigate the degree of isolation, the morphology, and other properties gathered or derived from open data bases and show that some objects have wide HI profiles probably because they are disturbed or are interacting, or might be confused in the ALFALFA beam. Read More

We directly construct model-independent mass profiles of galaxy clusters from combined weak-lensing distortion and magnification measurements within a Bayesian statistical framework,which allows for a full parameter-space extraction of the underlying signal. This method applies to the full range of radius outside the Einstein radius, and recovers the absolute mass normalization. We apply our method to deep Subaru imaging of five high-mass (>10^{15}M_{sun}) clusters, A1689, A1703, A370, Cl0024+17, and RXJ1347-11, to obtain accurate profiles to beyond the virial radius (r_{vir}). Read More