A. Wereszczynski

A. Wereszczynski
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A. Wereszczynski

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High Energy Physics - Theory (49)
Mathematical Physics (20)
Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (20)
Nuclear Theory (13)
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (6)
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (3)
Nonlinear Sciences - Exactly Solvable and Integrable Systems (3)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (2)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (1)
Nonlinear Sciences - Pattern Formation and Solitons (1)
Physics - Other (1)

Publications Authored By A. Wereszczynski

We study the supersymmetric extensions of the $O(3)$ $\sigma$-model in $1+1$ and $2+1$ dimensions. We show that it is possible to construct non-equivalent supersymmetric versions of a given model sharing the same bosonic sector and free from higher-derivative terms. Read More

We show that the standard Skyrme model without pion mass term can be expressed as a sum of two BPS submodels, i.e., of two models whose static field equations, independently, can be reduced to first order equations. Read More

In the Skyrme model of nucleons and nuclei, the spin excitation energy of the nucleon is traditionally calculated by a fit of the rigid rotor quantization of spin/isospin of the fundamental Skyrmion (the hedgehog) to the masses of the nucleon and the Delta resonance. The resulting, quite large spin excitation energy of the nucleon of about $ 73\, \mbox{MeV}$ is, however, rather difficult to reconcile with the small binding energies of physical nuclei, among other problems. Here we argue that a more reliable value for the spin excitation energy of the nucleon, compatible with many physical constraints, is about $ 16\, \mbox{MeV}$. Read More

We study radial vibrations of spherically symmetric skyrmions in the BPS Skyrme model. Concretely, we numerically solve the linearised field equations for small fluctuations in a skyrmion background, both for linearly stable oscillations and for (unstable) resonances. This is complemented by numerical solutions of the full nonlinear system, which confirm all the results of the linear analysis. Read More

We study the existence of hairy black holes in the generalized Einstein-Skyrme model. It is proven that in the BPS model limit there are no hairy black hole solutions, although the model admits gravitating (and flat space) solitons. Furthermore, we find strong evidence that a necessary condition for the existence of black holes with Skyrmionic hair is the inclusion of the Skyrme term $\mathcal{L}_4$. Read More

In this review, we summarise the main features of the BPS Skyrme model which provides a physically well-motivated idealisation of atomic nuclei and nuclear matter: 1) it leads to zero binding energies for classical solitons (while realistic binding energies emerge owing to the semiclassical corrections, the Coulomb interaction and isospin breaking); 2) it describes a perfect non-barotropic fluid already at the microscopic (field theoretical) level which allows to study thermodynamics beyond the mean-field limit. These properties allow for an approximate but analytical calculation of binding energies of the most abundant nuclei, for a determination of the equation of state of skyrmionic matter (both in the full field theory and in a mean-field approximation) as well as the description of neutron stars as Skyrme solitons with a very good agreement with available observational data. All these results suggest that the proper low energy effective model of QCD should be close to the BPS Skyrme model in a certain sense (a "near-BPS Skyrme model"), with a prominent role played by the BPS part. Read More

There exists, in general, no unique definition of the size (volume, area, etc., depending on dimension) of a soliton. Here we demonstrate that the geometric volume (area etc. Read More

We investigate the role of pressure in a class of generalised Skyrme models. We introduce pressure as the trace of the spatial part of the energy-momentum tensor and show that it obeys the usual thermodynamical relation. Then, we compute analytically the mean-field equation of state in the high and medium pressure regimes by applying topological bounds on compact domains. Read More

We continue the investigation of thermodynamical properties of the BPS Skyrme model. In particular, we analytically compute the baryon chemical potential both in the full field theory and in a mean-field approximation. In the full field theory case, we find that the baryon chemical potential is always exactly proportional to the baryon density, for arbitrary solutions. Read More

Using a solitonic model of nuclear matter, the BPS Skyrme model, we compare neutron stars obtained in the full field theory, where gravitational back reaction is completely taken into account, with calculations in a mean-field approximation using the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff approach. In the latter case, a mean-field-theory equation of state is derived from the original BPS field theory. We show that in the full field theory, where the energy density is non-constant even at equilibrium, there is no universal and coordinate independent equation of state of nuclear matter, in contrast to the mean-field approximation. Read More

We demonstrate that the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model with a double vacuum potential allows for phase transitions from a non-solitonic to a solitonic phase, where the latter corresponds to a ferromagnetic liquid. Such a transition can be generated by increasing the external pressure $P$ or by turning on an external magnetic field $H$. As a consequence, the topological phase where gauged BPS baby skyrmions exist, is a higher density phase. Read More

We present a concrete model of a low energy effective field theory of QCD, the well-known Skyrme Model. Specifically, we will work with the BPS submodel in order to describe the binding energies of nuclei. This BPS Skyrme model is characterized by having a saturated bound for the energy proportional to the baryon number of the nuclei. Read More

The BPS Skyrme model has been demonstrated already to provide a physically intriguing and quantitatively reliable description of nuclear matter. Indeed, the model has both the symmetries and the energy-momentum tensor of a perfect fluid, and thus represents a field theoretic realization of the "liquid droplet" model of nuclear matter. In addition, the classical soliton solutions together with some obvious corrections (spin-isospin quantization, Coulomb energy, proton-neutron mass difference) provide an accurate modeling of nuclear binding energies for heavier nuclei. Read More

The magnetothermodynamics of skyrmion type matter described by the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model at zero temperature is investigated. We prove that the BPS property of the model is preserved also for boundary conditions corresponding to an asymptotically constant magnetic field. The BPS bound and the corresponding BPS equations saturating the bound are found. Read More

One problem in the application of the Skyrme model to nuclear physics is that it predicts too large a value for the compression modulus of nuclear matter. Here we investigate the thermodynamics of the BPS Skyrme model at zero temperature and calculate its equation of state. Among other results, we find that classically (i. Read More

We argue that the conventional method to calculate the OPE coefficients in the strong coupling limit for heavy-heavy-light operators in the N=4 Super-Yang-Mills theory has to be modified by integrating the light vertex operator not only over a single string worldsheet but also over the moduli space of classical solutions corresponding to the heavy states. This reflects the fact that we are primarily interested in energy eigenstates and not coherent states. We tested our prescription for the BMN vacuum correlator, for folded strings on $S^5$ and for two-particle states. Read More

We use the classical BPS soliton solutions of the BPS Skyrme model together with corrections from the collective coordinate quantization of spin and isospin, the electrostatic Coulomb energies, and a small explicit breaking of the isospin symmetry - accounting for the proton-neutron mass difference - to calculate nuclear binding energies. We find that the resulting binding energies are already in excellent agreement with their physical values for heavier nuclei, demonstrating thereby that the BPS Skyrme model is a distinguished starting point for a detailed quantitative investigation of nuclear and low-energy strong interaction physics. Read More

The Skyrme model has a natural generalization amenable to a standard hamiltonian treatment, consisting of the standard sigma model and the Skyrme terms, a potential, and a certain term sextic in first derivatives. Here we demonstrate that, in this theory, each pair of terms in the static energy functional which may support topological solitons according to the Derrick criterion (i.e. Read More

Recently, within the space of generalized Skyrme models, a BPS submodel was identified which reproduces some bulk properties of nuclear matter already on a classical level and, as such, constitutes a promising field theory candidate for the detailed and reliable description of nuclei and hadrons. Here we extend and further develop these investigations by applying the model to the calculation of nuclear binding energies. Concretely, we calculate these binding energies by including the classical soliton energies, the excitation energies from the collective coordinate quantization of spin and isospin, the electrostatic Coulomb energies and a small explicit isospin symmetry breaking, which accounts for the mass difference between proton and neutron. Read More

We calculate the rotational-vibrational spectrum in the BPS Skyrme model for the hedgehog skyrmion with baryon number one. The resulting excitation energies for the nucleon and delta Roper resonances are slightly above their experimental values. Together with the fact that in the standard Skyrme model these excitation energies are significantly lower than the experimental ones, this provides strong evidence for the conjecture that the inclusion of the BPS Skyrme model is necessary for a successful quantitative description of physical properties of baryons and nuclei. Read More

If a scalar field theory in (1+1) dimensions possesses soliton solutions obeying first order BPS equations, then, in general, it is possible to find an infinite number of related field theories with BPS solitons which obey closely related BPS equations. We point out that this fact may be understood as a simple consequence of an appropriately generalised notion of self-duality. We show that this self-duality framework enables us to generalize to higher dimensions the construction of new solitons from already known solutions. Read More

We continue the investigation of supersymmetric extensions of baby Skyrme models in d=2+1 dimensions. In a first step, we show that the CP(1) form of the baby Skyrme model allows for the same N=1 SUSY extension as its O(3) formulation. Then we construct the N=1 SUSY extension of the gauged baby Skyrme model, i. Read More

In this talk, we give new insight into one of the best-known nonlinear field theories, the Skyrme model. We present some exact relevant solutions coming from different new versions (gauged BPS baby as well as vector BPS Skyrme models) giving rise to topological solitons, and highlighting the BPS character of the theory. Read More

We consider Lifshitz field theories with a dynamical critical exponent z equal to the dimension of space d and with a large group of base space symmetries, concretely space coordinate transformations with unit determinant ("Special Diffeomorphisms"). The field configurations of the theories considered may have the topology of skyrmions, vortices or monopoles, although we focus our detailed investigations on skyrmions. The resulting Lifshitz field theories have a BPS bound and exact soliton solutions saturating the bound, as well as time-dependent topological Q-ball solutions. Read More

The BPS Skyrme model is a specific subclass of Skyrme-type field theories which possesses both a BPS bound and infinitely many soliton solutions (skyrmions) saturating that bound, a property that makes the model a very convenient first approximation to the study of some properties of nuclei and hadrons. A related property, the existence of a large group of symmetry transformations, allows for solutions of rather general shapes, among which some of them will be relevant to the description of physical nuclei. We study here the classical symmetries of the BPS Skyrme model, applying them to construct soliton solutions with some prescribed shapes, what constitutes a further important step for the reliable application of the model to strong interaction physics. Read More

We demonstrate that in the supersymmetric extensions of a class of generalized (or K) field theories introduced recently, the static energy satisfies a BPS bound in each topological sector. Further, the corresponding soliton solutions saturate the bound. We also find strong indications that the BPS bound shows up in the SUSY algebra as a central extension, as is the case in the well-known supersymmetric field theories with standard kinetic terms. Read More

The BPS baby Skyrme models are submodels of baby Skyrme models, where the nonlinear sigma model term is suppressed. They have skyrmion solutions saturating a BPS bound, and the corresponding static energy functional is invariant under area-preserving diffeomorphisms (APDs). Here we show that the solitons in the BPS baby Skyrme model, which carry a nontrivial topological charge $Q_{b} \in \pi_2(S^2)$ (a winding number), are dual to vortices in a BPS vortex model with a topological charge $Q_{v}\in \pi_1(S^1)$ (a vortex number), in the sense that there is a map between the BPS solutions of the two models. Read More

The baby Skyrme model is a well-known nonlinear field theory supporting topological solitons in two space dimensions. Its action functional consists of a potential term, a kinetic term quadratic in derivatives (the "nonlinear sigma model term") and the Skyrme term quartic in first derivatives. The limiting case of vanishing sigma model term (the so-called BPS baby Skyrme model) is known to support exact soliton solutions saturating a BPS bound which exists for this model. Read More

We analyze the vector meson formulation of the BPS Skyrme model in (3+1) dimensions, where the term of sixth power in first derivatives characteristic for the original, integrable BPS Skyrme model (the topological or baryon current squared) is replaced by a coupling between the vector meson $\omega_\mu$ and the baryon current. We find that the model remains integrable in the sense of generalized integrability and almost solvable (reducible to a set of two first order ODEs) for any value of the baryon charge. Further, we analyze the appearance of topological solitons for two one-parameter families of one vacuum potentials: the old Skyrme potentials and the so-called BPS potentials. Read More

We investigate the relation between the BPS baby Skyrme model and its vector meson formulation, where the baby Skyrme term is replaced by a coupling between the topological current $B_\mu$ and the vector meson field $\omega_\mu$. The vector model still possesses infinitely many symmetries leading to infinitely many conserved currents which stand behind its solvability. It turns out that the similarities and differences of the two models depend strongly on the specific form of the potential. Read More

The baby Skyrme model is a well-known nonlinear field theory supporting topological solitons in two space dimensions. In the limit where the term quadratic in derivatives (the "sigma model term") vanishes some additional structure emerges. The resulting ("extreme" or "restricted" or "BPS") baby Skyrme model has exact soliton solutions saturating a BPS bound which exists for this restricted model. Read More

We review the recently developed supersymmetric extensions of field theories with non-standard kinetic terms (so-called K field theories) in two an three dimensions. Further, we study the issue of topological defect formation in these supersymmetric theories. Specifically, we find supersymmetric K field theories which support topological kinks in 1+1 dimensions as well as supersymmetric extensions of the baby Skyrme model for arbitrary nonnegative potentials in 2+1 dimensions. Read More

We consider operators in N=4 SYM theory which are dual, at strong coupling, to classical strings rotating in S^5. Three point correlation functions of such operators factorize into a universal contribution coming from the AdS part of the string sigma model and a state-dependent S^5 contribution. Consequently a similar factorization arises for the OPE coefficients. Read More

Within the set of generalized Skyrme models, we identify a submodel which has both infinitely many symmetries and a Bogomolny bound which is saturated by infinitely many exact soliton solutions. Concretely, the submodel consists of the square of the baryon current and a potential term only. Further, already on the classical level, this BPS Skyrme model reproduces some features of the liquid drop model of nuclei. Read More

We construct supersymmetric K field theories (i.e., theories with a non-standard kinetic term) in 1+1 and 2+1 dimensions such that the bosonic sector just consists of a nonstandard kinetic term plus a potential. Read More

We construct a method to supersymmetrize higher kinetic terms and apply it to the baby Skyrme model. We find that there exist N=1 supersymmetric extensions for baby Skyrme models with arbitrary potential. Read More

Recently it has been pointed out that the "Faddeev-Niemi" equations that correspond to the Yang-Mills equations of motion for a decomposed gauge field, can have solutions that obey the standard Yang-Mills equations with a source term. Here we present a general class of such gauge field configurations. Read More

Within the class of field theories with the field contents of the Skyrme model, one submodel can be found which consists of the square of the baryon current and a potential term only. For this submodel, a Bogomolny bound exists and the static soliton solutions saturate this bound. Further, already on the classical level, this BPS Skyrme model reproduces some features of the liquid drop model of nuclei. Read More

We explore how to compute, classically at strong coupling, correlation functions of local operators corresponding to classical spinning string states. The picture we obtain is of `fattened' Witten diagrams, the evaluation of which turns out to be surprisingly subtle and requires a modification of the naive classical action due to a necessary projection onto appropriate wave functions. We examine string solutions which compute the simplest case of a two-point function and reproduce the right scaling with the anomalous dimensions corresponding to the energies of the associated spinning string solutions. Read More

A restriction of the baby Skyrme model consisting of the quartic and potential terms only is investigated in detail for a wide range of potentials. Further, its properties are compared with those of the corresponding full baby Skyrme models. We find that topological (charge) as well as geometrical (nucleus/shell shape) features of baby skyrmions are captured already by the soliton solutions of the restricted model. Read More

The Skyrme model is a low-energy effective field theory for QCD, where the baryons emerge as soliton solutions. It is, however, not so easy within the standard Skyrme model to reproduce the almost exact linear growth of the nuclear masses with the baryon number (topological charge), due to the lack of Bogomolny solutions in this model, which has also hindered analytical progress. Here we identify a submodel within the Skyrme-type low energy effective action which does have a Bogomolny bound and exact Bogomolny solutions, and therefore, at least at the classical level, reproduces the nuclear masses by construction. Read More

For the baby Skyrme model with a specific potential, compacton solutions, i.e., configurations with a compact support and parabolic approach to the vacuum, are derived. Read More

We study a scalar field theory with a non-standard kinetic term minimally coupled to gravity. We establish the existence of compact boson stars, that is, static solutions with compact support of the full system with self-gravitation taken into account. Concretely, there exist two types of solutions, namely compact balls on the one hand, and compact shells on the other hand. Read More

Some models providing shell-shaped static solutions with compact support (compactons) in 3+1 and 4+1 dimensions are introduced, and the corresponding exact solutions are calculated analytically. These solutions turn out to be topological solitons, and may be classified as maps $S^3 \to S^3$ and suspended Hopf maps, respectively. The Lagrangian of these models is given by a scalar field with a non-standard kinetic term (K field) coupled to a pure Skyrme term restricted to $S^2$, rised to the appropriate power to avoid the Derrick scaling argument. Read More

We investigate a version of the abelian Higgs model with a non-standard kinetic term (K field theory) in 2+1 dimensions. The existence of vortex type solutions with compact support (topological compactons) is established by a combination of analytical and numerical methods. This result demonstrates that the concept of compact solitons in K field theories can be extended to higher dimensions. Read More

A procedure allowing for the construction of Lorentz invariant integrable models living in d+1 dimensional space-time and with an n dimensional target space is provided. Here, integrability is understood as the existence of the generalized zero-curvature formulation and infinitely many conserved quantities. A close relation between the Lagrange density of the integrable models and the pullback of the pertinent volume form on target space is established. Read More

Recently we proposed that K fields, that is, fields with a non-standard kinetic term, may provide a mechanism for the generation of thick branes, based on the following observations. Firstly, K field theories allow for soliton solutions with compact support, i.e. Read More

Using a nonlocal field transformation for the gauge field known as Cho--Faddeev--Niemi--Shabanov decomposition as well as ideas taken from generalized integrability, we derive a new family of infinitely many conserved currents in the self-dual sector of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. These currents may be related to the area preserving diffeomorphisms on the reduced target space. The calculations are performed in a completely covariant manner and, therefore, can be applied to the self-dual equations in any space-time dimension with arbitrary signature. Read More

We briefly review the concepts of generalized zero curvature conditions and integrability in higher dimensions, where integrability in this context is related to the existence of infinitely many conservation laws. Under certain assumptions, it turns out that these conservation laws are, in fact, generated by a class of geometric target space transformations, namely the volume-preserving diffeomorphisms. We classify the possible conservation laws of field theories for the case of a three-dimensional target space. Read More