A. W. Thomas - A2 Collaboration at MAMI

A. W. Thomas
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A. W. Thomas
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A2 Collaboration at MAMI
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High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (14)
 
Nuclear Theory (13)
 
Nuclear Experiment (12)
 
High Energy Physics - Lattice (8)
 
High Energy Physics - Experiment (7)
 
Physics - Plasma Physics (4)
 
Astrophysics of Galaxies (4)
 
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (4)
 
Mathematics - Group Theory (3)
 
Physics - Accelerator Physics (2)
 
Physics - Optics (2)
 
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (2)
 
Statistics - Computation (2)
 
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (1)
 
Quantum Physics (1)
 
Mathematics - Geometric Topology (1)
 
Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence (1)
 
Computer Science - Robotics (1)
 
Computer Science - Discrete Mathematics (1)
 
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (1)
 
Mathematics - Information Theory (1)
 
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (1)
 
Statistics - Machine Learning (1)
 
High Energy Physics - Theory (1)
 
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (1)
 
Computer Science - Information Theory (1)
 
Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (1)

Publications Authored By A. W. Thomas

We report on the first experimental observation of a current-driven instability developing in a quasi-neutral matter-antimatter beam. Strong magnetic fields ($\geq$ 1 T) are measured, via means of a proton radiography technique, after the propagation of a neutral electron-positron beam through a background electron-ion plasma.The experimentally determined equipartition parameter of $\epsilon_B \approx 10^{-3}$, is typical of values inferred from models of astrophysical gamma-ray bursts, in which the relativistic flows are also expected to be pair dominated. Read More

The double-polarization observable $E$ and the helicity-dependent cross sections $\sigma_{1/2}$ and $\sigma_{3/2}$ have been measured for the first time for single $\pi^{0}$ photoproduction from protons and neutrons bound in the deuteron at the electron accelerator facility MAMI in Mainz, Germany. The experiment used a circularly polarized photon beam and a longitudinally polarized deuterated butanol target. The reaction products, recoil nucleons and decay photons from the $\pi^0$ meson were detected with the Crystal Ball and TAPS electromagnetic calorimeters. Read More

$\phi$-meson--nucleus bound state energies and absorption widths are calculated for seven selected nuclei by solving the Klein-Gordon equation with complex optical potentials. Essential input for the calculations, namely the medium-modified $K$ and $\overline{K}$ meson masses, as well as the density distributions in nuclei, are obtained from the quark-meson coupling model. The attractive potential for the $\phi$-meson in the nuclear medium originates from the in-medium enhanced $K\overline{K}$ loop in the $\phi$-meson self-energy. Read More

This paper aims at formulating the issue of ranking multivariate unlabeled observations depending on their degree of abnormality as an unsupervised statistical learning task. In the 1-d situation, this problem is usually tackled by means of tail estimation techniques: univariate observations are viewed as all the more 'abnormal' as they are located far in the tail(s) of the underlying probability distribution. It would be desirable as well to dispose of a scalar valued 'scoring' function allowing for comparing the degree of abnormality of mul-tivariate observations. Read More

Bright and ultrashort duration X-ray pulses can be produced by through betatron oscillations of electrons during Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA). Our experimental measurements using the \textsc{Hercules} laser system demonstrate a dramatic increase in X-ray flux for interaction distances beyond the depletion/dephasing lengths, where the initial electron bunch injected into the first wake bucket catches up with the laser pulse front and the laser pulse depletes. A transition from an LWFA regime to a beam-driven plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA) regime consequently occurs. Read More

We present a new kind of structural Markov property for probabilistic laws on decomposable graphs, prove the equivalence of an exponential family assumption, and discuss identifiability, modelling and computational implications. Read More

The positive-parity nucleon spectrum is studied in 2 + 1 flavour lattice QCD in an attempt to discover novel low-lying energy eigenstates in the region of the Roper resonance. In this work, we employ standard three-quark interpolating fields and introduce new local five-quark meson-baryon operators that hold the possibility of revealing new states that have been missed in previous studies. Motivated by phenomenological arguments, five-quark interpolators based on the $\sigma{N}$, $\pi{N}$ and $a_0{N}$ channels are constructed. Read More

In N=1 supergravity the tree-level scalar potential of the hidden sector may have a minimum with broken local supersymmetry (SUSY) as well as a supersymmetric Minkowski vacuum. These vacua can be degenerate, allowing for a consistent implementation of the multiple point principle. The first minimum where SUSY is broken can be identified with the physical phase in which we live. Read More

Background: The Skyrme energy density functional is widely used in mean-field calculations of nuclear structure and dynamics. However, its reliance on phenomenology may compromise its isovector properties and its performance for exotic nuclear systems. Purpose: This work investigates the possibility of removing some phenomenology from the density functional by drawing on the high-energy degrees-of-freedom of the quark-meson coupling (QMC) model. Read More

We propose a simple, generic algorithm for parallelising Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms for posterior inference of Bayesian hierarchical models. Our algorithm parallelises evaluation of the product-form likelihoods formed when a parameter has many children in the hierarchical model; and parallelises sampling of conditionally-independent sets of parameters. A simple heuristic algorithm is used to decide which approach to use for each parameter and to apportion computation across computational cores. Read More

Precise helicity-dependent cross sections and the double-polarization observable $E$ were measured for $\eta$ photoproduction from quasi-free protons and neutrons bound in the deuteron. The $\eta\rightarrow 2\gamma$ and $\eta\rightarrow 3\pi^0\rightarrow 6\gamma$ decay modes were used to optimize the statistical quality of the data and to estimate systematic uncertainties. The measurement used the A2 detector setup at the tagged photon beam of the electron accelerator MAMI in Mainz. Read More

Two different descriptions of the existing pion-nucleon scattering data in the region of the Roper resonance are constructed. Both descriptions fit the experimental data very well. In one scenario the resonance is the result of strong rescattering between coupled meson-baryon channels, while in the other scenario, the resonance has a large bare-baryon (or quark-model like) component. Read More

The light-quark sector of the Lambda(1405) baryon is examined in the context of the recent discovery of a dominant antikaon-nucleon composition at low quark masses. Further evidence for this interpretation of the Lambda(1405) is presented, by calculating the u and d quark contributions to the Lambda(1405) magnetic form factors in lattice QCD. The extent to which these quantities are consistent with the exotic molecular description can then be quantified by comparing the results with the equivalent nucleon form factors. Read More

The mass and decay width of the $\phi$ meson in cold nuclear matter are computed in an effective Lagrangian approach. The medium dependence of these properties are obtained by evaluating kaon-antikaon loop contributions to the $\phi$ self-energy, employing the medium-modified kaon masses, calculated using the quark-meson coupling model. The loop integral is regularized with a dipole form factor, and the sensitivity of the results to the choice of cutoff mass in the form factor is investigated. Read More

Corrections motivated by chiral symmetry arguments have long been known to give important contributions to hadronic observables, particularly at low momentum transfer. It is possible to separate these approaches into two broad groups; either the corrections are implemented at the parton level, or at the hadron level. We explore the results of incorporating pion loop corrections at the hadron level to a calculation of electromagnetic form factors in the NJL model. Read More

We present a study of the tunnel magneto-Seebeck (TMS) effect in MgO based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). The electrodes consist of CoFeB with in-plane magnetic anisotropy. The temperature gradients which generate a voltage across the MTJs layer stack are created using laser heating. Read More

The double polarization observable $E$ and the helicity dependent cross sections $\sigma_{1/2}$ and $\sigma_{3/2}$ were measured for $\eta$ photoproduction from quasi-free protons and neutrons. The circularly polarized tagged photon beam of the A2 experiment at the Mainz MAMI accelerator was used in combination with a longitudinally polarized deuterated butanol target. The almost $4\pi$ detector setup of the Crystal Ball and TAPS is ideally suited to detect the recoil nucleons and the decay photons from $\eta\rightarrow 2\gamma$ and $\eta\rightarrow 3\pi^0$. Read More

In a strong magnetic field, ultra-relativistic electrons or positrons undergo spin flip transitions as they radiate, preferentially spin polarizing in one direction -- the Sokolov-Ternov effect. Here we show that this effect could occur very rapidly (in less than 10 fs) in high intensity ($I\gtrsim10^{23}$ W/cm$^{2}$) laser-matter interactions, resulting in a high degree of electron spin polarization (70%-90%). Read More

Drawing on experimental data for baryon resonances, Hamiltonian effective field theory (HEFT) is used to predict the positions of the finite-volume energy levels to be observed in lattice QCD simulations. We have studied the low-lying baryons $N^*(1535)$, $N^*(1440)$, and $\Lambda(1405)$. In the initial analysis, the phenomenological parameters of the Hamiltonian model are constrained by experiment and the finite-volume eigenstate energies are a prediction of the model. Read More

The index coding problem has been generalized recently to accommodate receivers which demand functions of messages and which possess functions of messages. The connections between index coding and matroid theory have been well studied in the recent past. Index coding solutions were first connected to multi linear representation of matroids. Read More

The reactions $\gamma p\to \eta p$ and $\gamma p\to \eta' p$ have been measured from their thresholds up to the center-of-mass energy $W=1.96$GeV with the tagged-photon facilities at the Mainz Microtron, MAMI. Differential cross sections were obtained with unprecedented accuracy, providing fine energy binning and full production-angle coverage. Read More

In a recent study of the Lambda(1405), the suppression of the strange-quark contribution to the magnetic form factor was interpreted as the discovery of a dominant antikaon-nucleon composition for this low-lying state. We confirm this result by calculating the light u- and d-quark contributions to the Lambda(1405) magnetic form factor in lattice QCD in order to determine the extent to which their contributions support this exotic molecular description. Drawing on the recent graded-symmetry approach for the flavor-singlet components of the Lambda(1405), the separation of connected and disconnected contributions is performed in both the flavor-octet and singlet representations. Read More

The Exceptional Supersymmetric Standard Model (E$_6$SSM) is a low energy alternative to the MSSM with an extra $U(1)$ gauge symmetry and three generations of matter filling complete 27-plet representations of $E_6$. This provides both new D and F term contributions that raise the Higgs mass at tree level, and a compelling solution to the $\mu$-problem of the MSSM by forbidding such a term with the extra $U(1)$ symmetry. Instead, an effective $\mu$-term is generated from the VEV of an SM singlet which breaks the extra $U(1)$ symmetry at low energies, giving rise to a massive $Z^\prime$. Read More

An approach for relating the nucleon resonances extracted from $\pi N$ reaction data to lattice QCD calculations has been developed by using the finite-volume Hamiltonian method. Within models of $\pi N$ reactions, bare states are introduced to parametrize the intrinsic excitations of the nucleon. We show that the resonance pole positions can be related to the probability $P_{N^*}(E)$ of finding the bare state, $N^*$, in the $\pi N$ scattering states in infinite volume. Read More

We present a simplified model of Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) continuum emission designed for photoionization modeling. The new model {\sc oxaf} reproduces the diversity of spectral shapes that arise in physically-based models. We identify and explain degeneracies in the effects of AGN parameters on model spectral shapes, with a focus on the complete degeneracy between the black hole mass and AGN luminosity. Read More

The Dalitz decay pi^0 -> e^+e^-gamma has been measured in the gamma p -> pi^0 p reaction with the A2 tagged-photon facility at the Mainz Microtron, MAMI. The value obtained for the slope parameter of the pi^0 electromagnetic transition form factor, a_pi = 0.030+/-0. Read More

The scalar dipole polarizabilities, $\alpha_{E1}$ and $\beta_{M1}$, are fundamental properties related to the internal dynamics of the nucleon. The currently accepted values of the proton polarizabilities were determined by fitting to unpolarized proton Compton scattering cross section data. The measurement of the beam asymmetry $\Sigma_{3}$ in a certain kinematical range provides an alternative approach to the extraction of the scalar polarizabilities. Read More

MHz conductivity, torque magnetometer and magnetization measurements are reported on single crystals of CeOs$_4$Sb$_{12}$ and NdOs$_4$Sb$_{12}$ using temperatures down to 0.5~K and magnetic fields of up to 60~tesla. The field-orientation dependence of the de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations is deduced by rotating the samples about the $[010]$ and $[0\bar{1}1]$ directions. Read More

A period of quenching between the formation of the thick and thin disks of the Milky Way has been recently proposed to explain the observed age-[{\alpha}/Fe] distribution of stars in the solar neighbourhood. However, robust constraints on stellar ages are currently available for only a limited number of stars. The all-sky survey TESS (Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite) will observe the brightest stars in the sky and thus can be used to investigate the age distributions of stars in these components of the Galaxy via asteroseismology, where previously this has been difficult using other techniques. Read More

Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental plasma process involving an exchange of magnetic energy to plasma kinetic energy through changes in the magnetic field topology. In many astrophysical plasmas magnetic reconnection plays a key role in the release of large amounts of energy \cite{hoshino1}, although making direct measurements is challenging in the case of high-energy astrophysical systems such as pulsar wind emissions \cite{lyubarsky1}, gamma-ray bursts \cite{thompson1}, and jets from active galactic nuclei \cite{liu1}. Therefore, laboratory studies of magnetic reconnection provide an important platform for testing theories and characterising different regimes. Read More

Recent progress in laser wakefield acceleration has led to the emergence of a new generation of electron and X-ray sources that may have enormous benefits for ultrafast science. These novel sources promise to become indispensable tools for the investigation of structural dynamics on the femtosecond time scale, with spatial resolution on the atomic scale. Here, we demonstrate the use of laser-wakefield-accelerated electron bunches for time-resolved electron diffraction measurements of the structural dynamics of single-crystal silicon nano-membranes pumped by an ultrafast laser pulse. Read More

We give explicit necessary and sufficient conditions for the abstract commensurability of certain families of 1-ended, hyperbolic groups, namely right-angled Coxeter groups defined by generalized theta-graphs and cycles of generalized theta-graphs, and geometric amalgams of free groups whose JSJ graphs are trees of diameter at most 4. We also show that if a geometric amalgam of free groups has JSJ graph a tree, then it is commensurable to a right-angled Coxeter group, and give an example of a geometric amalgam of free groups which is not commensurable to any group which is finitely generated by torsion elements. Our proofs involve a new geometric realization of the right-angled Coxeter groups we consider, such that covers corresponding to torsion-free, finite-index subgroups are surface amalgams. Read More

We study the polarized quark hadronization in a Monte Carlo (MC) framework based on the recent extension of the quark-jet framework, where a self-consistent treatment of the quark polarization transfer in a sequential hadronization picture has been presented. Here, we first adopt this approach for MC simulations of hadronization process with finite number of produced hadrons, expressing the relevant probabilities in terms of the eight leading twist quark-to-quark transverse momentum dependent (TMD) splitting functions (SFs) for elementary $q \to q'+h$ transition. We present explicit expressions for the unpolarized and Collins fragmentation functions (FFs) of unpolarized hadrons emitted at rank two. Read More

We perform a comprehensive analysis of the strange-antistrange parton distribution function (PDF) asymmetry in the proton in the framework of chiral effective theory, including the full set of lowest order kaon loop diagrams with off-shell and contact interactions, in addition to the usual on-shell contributions previously discussed in the literature. We identify the presence of $\delta$-function contributions to the $\bar s$ PDF at $x=0$, with a corresponding valence-like component of the $s$-quark PDF at larger $x$, which allows greater flexibility for the shape of $s-\bar s$. Expanding the moments of the PDFs in terms of the pseudoscalar kaon mass, we compute the leading nonanalytic behavior of the number and momentum integrals of the $s$ and $\bar s$ distributions, consistent with the chiral symmetry of QCD. Read More

The Dalitz decays eta -> e^+e^-g and omega -> pi^0 e^+e^- have been measured in the g p -> eta p and g p -> omega p reactions, respectively, with the A2 tagged-photon facility at the Mainz Microtron, MAMI. The value obtained for the slope parameter of the electromagnetic transition form factor of eta, Lambda^{-2}_eta=(1.97+/-0. Read More

We present a new approach to engineering broadband sources of entangled photon pairs for quantum interferometry. The source is based on quasi-phase-matched spontaneous parametric down conversion in a titanium diffused periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide with a strongly-chirped poling period. The proposed non-standard asymmetric poling mitigates phase distortions associated with the process of chirping. Read More

This paper is a contribution to the study of the subgroup structure of exceptional algebraic groups over algebraically closed fields of arbitrary characteristic. Following Serre, a closed subgroup of a semisimple algebraic group $G$ is called irreducible if it lies in no proper parabolic subgroup of $G$. In this paper we complete the classification of irreducible connected subgroups of exceptional algebraic groups, providing an explicit set of representatives for the conjugacy classes of such subgroups. Read More

The positive-parity nucleon spectrum is explored in $2 + 1$-flavour lattice QCD in a search for new low-lying energy eigenstates near the energy regime of the Roper resonance. In addition to conventional three-quark operators, we consider novel, local five-quark meson-baryon type interpolating fields that hold the promise to reveal new eigenstates that may have been missed in previous analyses. Drawing on phenomenological insight, five-quark operators based on $\sigma{N}$, $\pi{N}$ and $a_0{N}$ channels are constructed. Read More

In the E6 inspired composite Higgs model (E6CHM) the strongly interacting sector possesses an SU(6)\times U(1)_B\times U(1)_L global symmetry. Near scale f\gtrsim 10 TeV the SU(6) symmetry is broken down to its SU(5) subgroup, that involves the standard model (SM) gauge group. This breakdown of SU(6) leads to a set of pseudo--Nambu--Goldstone bosons (pNGBs) including a SM--like Higgs and a SM singlet pseudoscalar A. Read More

2016Jul
Affiliations: 1Australian National University, 2Australian National University, 3Australian National University, 4Australian National University, 5Australian National University, 6Australian National University, 7Australian National University, 8Australian National University, 9Australian National University, 10Australian National University, 11Australian National University, 12Australian National University, 13Australian National University, 14Australian National University, 15Australian National University, 16Australian National University, 17Australian National University, 18Australian National University, 19Australian National University, 20Australian National University, 21Australian National University, 22Australian National University, 23Australian National University

This paper presents the first major data release and survey description for the ANU WiFeS SuperNovA Program (AWSNAP). AWSNAP is an ongoing supernova spectroscopy campaign utilising the Wide Field Spectrograph (WiFeS) on the Australian National University (ANU) 2.3m telescope. Read More

The pole structure of the $\Lambda(1405)$ is examined by fitting the couplings of an underlying Hamiltonian effective field theory to cross sections of $K^- p$ scattering in the infinite-volume limit. Finite-volume spectra are then obtained from the theory, and compared to lattice QCD results for the mass of the $\Lambda(1405)$. Momentum-dependent, non-separable potentials motivated by the well-known Weinberg-Tomozawa terms are used, with SU(3) flavour symmetry broken in the couplings and masses. Read More

We examine the phase shifts and inelasticities associated with the $N^*(1440)$ Roper resonance and connect these infinite-volume observables to the finite-volume spectrum of lattice QCD using Hamiltonian effective field theory. We explore three hypotheses for the structure of the Roper resonance. All three hypotheses are able to describe the scattering data well. Read More

We give an explicit construction of a maximal torsion-free finite-index subgroup of a certain type of Coxeter group. The subgroup is constructed as the fundamental group of a finite and non-positively curved polygonal complex. First we consider the special case where the universal cover of this polygonal complex is a hyperbolic building, and we construct finite-index embeddings of the fundamental group into certain cocompact lattices of the building. Read More

We present The Machine, an artificial neural network (ANN) capable of differentiating between the numbers of Gaussian components needed to describe the emission lines of Integral Field Spectroscopic (IFS) observations. Here we show the preliminary results of the S7 first data release (Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectro- scopic Snapshot Survey, Dopita et al. 2015) and SAMI Galaxy Survey (Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral Field Unit, Croom et al. Read More

High statistics measurements of the photon asymmetry $\mathrm{\Sigma}$ for the $\overrightarrow{\gamma}$p$\rightarrow\pi^{0}$p reaction have been made in the center of mass energy range W=1214-1450 MeV. The data were measured with the MAMI A2 real photon beam and Crystal Ball/TAPS detector systems in Mainz, Germany. The results significantly improve the existing world data and are shown to be in good agreement with previous measurements, and with the MAID, SAID, and Bonn-Gatchina predictions. Read More

Random Edge is the most natural randomized pivot rule for the simplex algorithm. Considerable progress has been made recently towards fully understanding its behavior. Back in 2001, Welzl introduced the concepts of \emph{reachmaps} and \emph{niceness} of Unique Sink Orientations (USO), in an effort to better understand the behavior of Random Edge. Read More

We review the reasons why one might choose to seriously re-examine the traditional approach to nuclear theory where nucleons are treated as immutable. This examination leads us to argue that the modification of the structure of the nucleon when immersed in a nuclear medium is fundamental to how atomic nuclei are built. Consistent with this approach we suggest key experiments which should tell us unambiguously whether there is such a change in the structure of a bound nucleon. Read More

We develop a belief space planning (BSP) approach that advances the state of the art by incorporating reasoning about data association (DA) within planning, while considering additional sources of uncertainty. Existing BSP approaches typically assume data association is given and perfect, an assumption that can be harder to justify while operating, in the presence of localization uncertainty, in ambiguous and perceptually aliased environments. In contrast, our data association aware belief space planning (DA-BSP) approach explicitly reasons about DA within belief evolution, and as such can better accommodate these challenging real world scenarios. Read More