# A. Kusina

## Publications Authored By A. Kusina

We compare predictions of nCTEQ15 nuclear parton distribution functions with proton-lead vector boson production data from the LHC. We select data sets that are most sensitive to nuclear PDFs and have potential to constrain them. We identify the kinematic regions and flavours where these data can bring new information and will have largest impact on the nuclear PDFs. Read More

**Authors:**David d'Enterria, Peter Z. Skands, D. Anderle, F. Anulli, J. Aparisi, G. Bell, V. Bertone, C. Bierlich, S. Carrazza, G. Corcella, D. d'Enterria, M. Dasgupta, I. Garcia, T. Gehrmann, O. Gituliar, K. Hamacher, N. P. Hartland, A. H. Hoang, A. Hornig, S. Jadach, T. Kaufmann, S. Kluth, D. W. Kolodrubetz, A. Kusina, C. Lee, G. Luisoni, V. Mateu, H. Matevosyan, W. Metzger, S. O. Moch, P. F. Monni, B. Nachman, E. R. Nocera, M. Perelló, W. Placzek, S. Plätzer, R. Perez-Ramos, G. Rauco, P. Richardson, F. Ringer, J. Rojo, Ph. Roloff, Y. Sakaki, N. Sato, R. Simoniello, T. Sjöstrand, P. Z. Skands, M. Skrzypek, G. Soyez, I. W. Stewart, M. Stratmann, J. Talbert, S. Todorova, S. Tokar, M. Vos, A. Vossen

This document collects the proceedings of the "Parton Radiation and Fragmentation from LHC to FCC-ee" workshop (http://indico.cern.ch/e/ee\_jets16) held at CERN in Nov. Read More

We present the nCTEQ15 global analysis of nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDFs). The main addition to the previous nCTEQ PDFs is the introduction of PDF uncertainties based on the Hessian method. Another important improvement is the inclusion of pion production data from RHIC giving us a handle to constrain gluon PDF. Read More

**Authors:**J. P. Lansberg, M. Anselmino, R. Arnaldi, S. J. Brodsky, V. Chambert, C. Da Silva, J. P. Didelez, M. G Echevarria, E. G. Ferreiro, F. Fleuret, Y. Gao, B. Genolini, C. Hadjidakis, I. Hřivnáčová, D. Kikola, A. Klein, A. Kurepin, A. Kusina, C. Lorcé, F. Lyonnet, L. Massacrier, A. Nass, C. Pisano, P. Robbe, I. Schienbein, M. Schlegel, E. Scomparin, J. Seixas, H. S. Shao, A. Signori, E. Steffens, N. Topilskaya, B. Trzeciak, U. I. Uggerhøj, A. Uras, R. Ulrich, Z. Yang

We discuss the potential of AFTER@LHC to measure single-transverse-spin asymmetries in open-charm and bottomonium production. With a HERMES-like hydrogen polarised target, such measurements over a year can reach precisions close to the per cent level. This is particularly remarkable since these analyses can probably not be carried out anywhere else Read More

We provide a comprehensive comparison of W/Z vector boson production data in proton-lead and lead-lead collisions at the LHC with predictions obtained using the nCTEQ15 PDFs. We identify the measurements which have the largest potential impact on the PDFs, and estimate the effect of including these data using a Monte Carlo reweighting method. We find this data set can provide information about both the nuclear corrections and the heavy flavor (strange) PDF components. Read More

Using the recently obtained Pgq splitting function we extend the low x evolution equation for gluons to account for contributions originating from quark-to-gluon splitting. In order to write down a consistent equation we resum virtual corrections coming from the gluon channel and demonstrate that this implies a suitable regularization of the Pgq singularity, corresponding to a soft emitted quark. We also note that the obtained equation is in a straightforward manner generalized to a nonlinear evolution equation which takes into account effects due to the presence of high gluon densities. Read More

We present the first official release of the nCTEQ nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDFs) with errors. The main addition to the previous nCTEQ PDFs is the introduction of PDF uncertainties based on the Hessian method. Another important improvement is the inclusion of pion production data from RHIC giving us a handle to constrain gluon PDF. Read More

We show that already at the NLO level the DGLAP evolution kernel Pqq starts to depend on the choice of the evolution variable. We give an explicit example of such a variable, namely the maximum of transverse momenta of emitted partons and we identify a class of evolution variables that leave the NLO Pqq kernel unchanged with respect to the known standard MS-bar results. The kernels are calculated using a modified Curci-Furmanski-Petronzio method which is based on a direct Feynman-graphs calculation. Read More

Heavy quark parton distribution functions (PDFs) play an important role in several Standard Model and New Physics processes. Most PDF analyses rely on the assumption that the charm and bottom PDFs are generated perturbatively by gluon splitting and do not include any non-perturbative degrees of freedom. However, a non-perturbative, intrinsic heavy quark PDFs have been predicted in the literature. Read More

Searches for new physics will increasingly depend on identifying deviations from precision Standard Model (SM) predictions. Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) will necessarily play a central role in this endeavor as it provides the framework for the parton model. However, as we move to higher orders and into extreme kinematic regions, we begin to see the full complexities of the QCD theory. Read More

We present the first official release of the nCTEQ nuclear parton distribution functions with errors. The main addition to the previous nCTEQ PDFs is the introduction of PDF uncertainties based on the Hessian method. Another important addition is the inclusion of pion production data from RHIC that give us a handle on constraining the gluon PDF. Read More

We present the new nCTEQ15 set of nuclear parton distribution functions with uncertainties. This fit extends the CTEQ proton PDFs to include the nuclear dependence using data on nuclei all the way up to 208^Pb. The uncertainties are determined using the Hessian method with an optimal rescaling of the eigenvectors to accurately represent the uncertainties for the chosen tolerance criteria. Read More

We demonstrate that to a very good approximation the scale-evolution of the intrinsic heavy quark content of the nucleon is governed by non-singlet evolution equations. This allows us to analyze the intrinsic heavy quark distributions without having to resort to a full-fledged global analysis of parton distribution functions. This freedom is then exploited to model intrinsic bottom distributions which are so far missing in the literature in order to estimate the impact of this non-perturbative contribution to the bottom-quark PDF, and on parton--parton luminosities at the LHC. Read More

We report on re-calculation of the next-to-leading order DGLAP evolution kernels performed in a scheme suited for Monte Carlo simulations of parton cascades (parton showers). Read More

We present a review of the state-of-the-art of our understanding of the intrinsic charm and bottom content of the nucleon. We discuss theoretical calculations, constraints from global analyses, and collider observables sensitive to the intrinsic heavy quark distributions. A particular emphasis is put on the potential of a high-energy and high-luminosity fixed target experiment using the LHC beams (AFTER@LHC) to search for intrinsic charm. Read More

Heavy quark parton distribution functions (PDFs) play an important role in several Standard Model and New Physics processes. Most analyses rely on the assumption that the charm and bottom PDFs are generated perturbatively by gluon splitting and do not involve any non-perturbative degrees of freedom. It is clearly necessary to test this hypothesis with suitable QCD processes. Read More

**Authors:**S. Alekhin, O. Behnke, P. Belov, S. Borroni, M. Botje, D. Britzger, S. Camarda, A. M. Cooper-Sarkar, K. Daum, C. Diaconu, J. Feltesse, A. Gizhko, A. Glazov, A. Guffanti, M. Guzzi, F. Hautmann, A. Jung, H. Jung, V. Kolesnikov, H. Kowalski, O. Kuprash, A. Kusina, S. Levonian, K. Lipka, B. Lobodzinski, K. Lohwasser, A. Luszczak, B. Malaescu, R. McNulty, V. Myronenko, S. Naumann-Emme, K. Nowak, F. Olness, E. Perez, H. Pirumov, R. Placakyte, K. Rabbertz, V. Radescu, R. Sadykov, G. P. Salam, A. Sapronov, A. Schoening, T. Schoerner-Sadenius, S. Shushkevich, W. Slominski, H. Spiesberger, P. Starovoitov, M. Sutton, J. Tomaszewska, O. Turkot, A. Vargas, G. Watt, K. Wichmann

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

HERAFitter is an open-source package that provides a framework for the determination of the parton distribution functions (PDFs) of the proton and for many different kinds of analyses in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). It encodes results from a wide range of experimental measurements in lepton-proton deep inelastic scattering and proton-proton (proton-antiproton) collisions at hadron colliders. These are complemented with a variety of theoretical options for calculating PDF-dependent cross section predictions corresponding to the measurements. Read More

We present updated nCTEQ nuclear parton distribution functions with errors including pion production data from RHIC. We compare them with the results of other groups and present selected LHC applications. Read More

In this note we outline the Monte Carlo project {\tt KrkMC}. The goal of this project is to construct a QCD Parton Shower accurate to NLO level in both coefficient function and splitting function (shower) parts. We discuss in detail one of its aspects --- the evolution kernels. Read More

We report on the progress in calculating NLO DGLAP splitting functions for $x<1$ using the New Principal Value prescription, which is a modification of the standard Principal Value approach proposed by Curci, Furmanski and Petronzio in 1980. The new prescription reproduces the standard results on the inclusive (integrated) level, but simplifies individual contributions and restricts the cancellations between real and virtual diagrams which makes it useful for Monte Carlo simulations. Read More

We propose a modified use of the Principal Value prescription for regularizing the infrared singularities in the light-cone axial gauge by applying it to all singularities in the light-cone plus component of integration momentum. The modification is motivated by and applied to the re-calculation of the QCD NLO splitting functions for the purpose of Monte Carlo implementations. The final results agree with the standard PV prescription whereas contributions from separate graphs get simplified. Read More

We introduce a Hybrid Variable Flavor Number Scheme (H-VFNS) for heavy flavors, which incorporates the advantages of both the traditional Variable Flavor Number Scheme (VFNS) as well as the Fixed Flavor Number Scheme (FFNS). We include an explicit dependence on number of active flavors $N_F$ in both the Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) and the strong coupling constant $\alpha_{S}$. This results in sets of coexisting PDFs and $\alpha_{S}$ for $N_F=\{3,4,5,6\}$, that are related analytically by the $\overline{\rm MS}$ matching conditions. Read More

Construction of a QCD cascade at the NLO level requires recalculation of the splitting functions in a different manner [1]. We describe the calculation of some of the virtual contributions to the non-singlet splitting function. In order to be compatible with the earlier calculated real contributions [2], the principal value prescription for regularizing the infrared singularities must be used in a new way. Read More

The decade-old technique of combining NLO-corrected hard process with LO-level parton shower Monte Carlo is now mature and used in practice of the QCD calculations in the LHC data analysis. The next step, its extension to an NNLO-corrected hard process combined with the NLO-level parton shower Monte Carlo, will require development of the latter component. It does not exist yet in a complete form. Read More

We show for the first time preliminary results of nuclear parton distribution function analysis of charged lepton DIS and Drell-Yan data within the CTEQ framework including error PDFs. We compare our error estimates to estimates of different nPDF groups. Read More

We introduce a Hybrid Variable Flavor Number Scheme for heavy flavors, denoted H-VFNS, which incorporates the advantages of both the traditional Variable Flavor Number Scheme (VFNS) as well as the Fixed Flavor Number Scheme (FFNS). By including an explicit $N_F$-dependence in both the Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) and the strong coupling constant $\alpha_S$, we generate coexisting sets of PDFs and $\alpha_S$ for $N_F=\{3,4,5,6\}$ at any scale $\mu$, that are related analytically by the $\overline{\text{MS}}$ matching conditions. The H-VFNS resums the heavy quark contributions and provides the freedom to choose the optimal $N_F$ for each particular data set. Read More

We investigate the impact of parton distribution functions (PDFs) uncertainties on W/Z production at the LHC, concentrating on the strange quark PDF. Additionally we examine the extent to which precise measurements at the LHC can provide additional information on the proton flavor structure. Read More

The new methodology of adding QCD NLO corrections in the initial state Monte Carlo parton shower (hard process part) is presented using process of the heavy boson production at the LHC as an example. Despite the simplified model of the process, presented numerical results prove that the basic concept of the new methodology works correctly in the numerical environment of the Monte Carlo parton shower event generator. The presented method is an alternative to the well established methods, MC@NLO and POWHEG. Read More

The concept of new methodology of adding QCD NLO corrections in the initial state Monte Carlo parton shower (hard process part) is tested numerically using, as an example, the process of the heavy boson production at hadron--hadron colliders such as LHC. In spite of the use of a simplified model of the process, all presented numerical results prove convincingly that the basic concept of the new methodology works correctly in practice, that is in the numerical environment of the Monte Carlo parton shower event generator. The differences with the other well established methods, like MC@NLO and POWHEG, are briefly discussed and future refinements of the implementation of the new method are also outlined. Read More

We compute the structure functions F2 and FL in the ACOT scheme for heavy quark production. We use the complete ACOT results to NLO, and make use of the MSbar massless results at NNLO and N3LO to estimate the higher order mass-dependent corrections. We show numerically that the dominant heavy quark mass effects can be taken into account using massless Wilson coefficients together with an appropriate rescaling prescription. Read More

We analyze the properties of the ACOT scheme for heavy quark production and make use of the MS-Bar massless results at NNLO and N3LO for the structure functions F2 and FL in neutral current deep-inelastic scattering to estimate the higher order corrections. The dominant heavy quark mass effects at higher orders can be taken into account using the massless Wilson coefficients together with an appropriate slow-rescaling prescription implementing the phase space constraints. Combining the exact ACOT scheme at NLO with these expressions should provide a good approximation to the full calculation in the ACOT scheme at NNLO and N3LO. Read More

**Authors:**J. Alcaraz Maestre, S. Alioli, J. R. Andersen, R. D. Ball, A. Buckley, M. Cacciari, F. Campanario, N. Chanon, G. Chachamis, V. Ciulli, F. Cossutti, G. Cullen, A. Denner, S. Dittmaier, J. Fleischer, R. Frederix, S. Frixione, J. Gao, L. Garren, S. Gascon-Shotkin, N. Greiner, J. P. Guillet, T. Hapola, N. P. Hartland, G. Heinrich, G. Hesketh, V. Hirschi, H. Hoeth, J. Huston, T. Ježo, S. Kallweit, K. Kovařík, F. Krauss, A. Kusina, Z. Liang, P. Lenzi, L. Lönnblad, J. J. Lopez-Villarejo, G. Luisoni, D. Maître, F. Maltoni, P. Mastrolia, P. M. Nadolsky, E. Nurse, C. Oleari, F. I. Olness, G. Ossola, E. Pilon, R. Pittau, S. Plätzer, S. Pozzorini, S. Prestel, E. Re, T. Reiter, T. Riemann, J. Rojo, G. P. Salam, S. Sapeta, I. Schienbein, M. Schönherr, H. Schulz, M. Schulze, M. Schwoerer, P. Skands, J. M. Smillie, G. Somogyi, G. Soyez, T. Stavreva, I. W. Stewart, M. Stockton, Z. Szor, F. J. Tackmann, P. Torrielli, F. Tramontano, M. Tripiana, Z. Trócsányi, M. Ubiali, V. Yundin, S. Weinzierl, J. Winter, J. Y. Yu, K. Zapp

The 2011 Les Houches workshop was the first to confront LHC data. In the two years since the previous workshop there have been significant advances in both soft and hard QCD, particularly in the areas of multi-leg NLO calculations, the inclusion of those NLO calculations into parton shower Monte Carlos, and the tuning of the non-perturbative parameters of those Monte Carlos. These proceedings describe the theoretical advances that have taken place, the impact of the early LHC data, and the areas for future development. Read More

Global analyses of Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) have provided incisive constraints on the up and down quark components of the proton, but constraining the other flavor degrees of freedom is more challenging. Higher-order theory predictions and new data sets have contributed to recent improvements. Despite these efforts, the strange quark PDF has a sizable uncertainty, particularly in the small x region. Read More

We analyze the properties of the ACOT scheme for heavy quark production and make use of the \MSbar massless results at NNLO and N3LO for the structure functions F2 and FL in neutral current deep-inelastic scattering to estimate the higher order corrections. For this purpose we decouple the heavy quark mass entering the phase space from the one entering the dynamics of the short distance cross section. We show numerically that the phase space mass is generally more important. Read More

We survey some of the recent developments in the extraction and application of heavy quark Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs). We also highlight some of the key HERA measurements which have contributed to these advances. Read More

The project of constructing a complete NLO-level Parton Shower Monte Carlo for the QCD processes developed in IFJ PAN in Krakow is reviewed. Four issues are discussed: (1) the extension of the standard inclusive collinear factorization into a new, fully exclusive scheme; (2) reconstruction of the LO Parton Shower in the new scheme; (3) inclusion of the exclusive NLO corrections into the hard process and (4) inclusion of the exclusive NLO corrections into the evolution (ladder) part. Read More

Feynman diagrams with two real partons contributing to the next-to-leading-order singlet gluon-quark DGLAP kernel are analysed. The infra-red singularities of unintegrated distributions are examined numerically. The analytical formulae are also given in some cases. Read More

We investigate the differences between the NLO evolution kernels in the Curci-Furmanski-Petronzio (CFP) and Monte Carlo (MC) factorization schemes for the non-singlet case. We show the origin of these differences and present them explicitly. We examine the influence of the choice of the factorization scale in the MC scheme (given by the upper phase space limit) on the evolution kernels in this scheme. Read More

Methodology of including QCD NLO corrections in the quark--gluon Monte Carlo shower is outlined. The work concentrates on two issues: (i) constructing leading order (LO) parton shower Monte Carlo from scratch, such that it rigorously extends collinear factorization into the exclusive (fully unintegrated) one which we call the Monte Carlo factorization scheme; (ii) introducing next-to-leading-order (NLO) corrections to the hard process in this new environment. The presented solution is designed to be extended to the full NLO level Monte Carlo, including NLO corrections not only in the hard process but in the whole shower. Read More

Results for the two real parton differential distributions needed for implementing a next-to-leading order (NLO) parton shower Monte Carlo are presented. They are also integrated over the phase space in order to provide solid numerical control of the MC codes and for the discussion of the differences between the standard $\bar{MS}$ factorization and Monte Carlo implementation at the level of inclusive NLO evolution kernels. Presented results cover the class of non-singlet diagrams entering into NLO kernels. Read More

Presently available perturbative QCD calculations combining hard process matrix element with the Parton Shower Monte Carlo programs feature hard process matrix element calculated often beyond the leading order (LO), that is including complete next-to-leading-order (NLO), or even next-to-next-to-leading-order (NNLO) corrections, while Parton Shower is only at the leading order (LO). We report here on a work in progress which demonstrate feasibility of constructing Parton Shower Monte Carlo (PSMC) featuring complete NLO corrections to QCD evolution with respect to the logarithm of the factorization scale. This effort presently covers non-singlet subset of Feynman diagrams contributing to the above QCD evolution. Read More

We are reporting on the ongoing effort of the Monte Carlo (MC) modelling of NLO DGLAP QCD evolution in the fully unintegrated form. The resulting parton shower MC is performing on its own the NLO QCD evolution, contrary to all known programs of this kind which are limited to LO level only. We overview this new MC scheme, for the non-singlet subset of the gluonstrahlung diagrams. Read More

We investigate the role of the choice of the upper phase space limit Q in the Curci-Furmanski-Petronzio (CFP) factorization scheme, which exploits dimensional regularization MS scheme. We examine how the choice of Q influences the evaluation of the standard DGLAP (inclusive) evolution kernels, gaining experience needed in the construction of the exclusive Monte Carlo modelling of the NLO DGLAP evolution. In particular, we uncover three types of mechanisms which assure the independence on Q of the inclusive DGLAP kernels calculated in the CFP scheme. Read More

The next-to-leading order (NLO) evolution of the parton distribution functions (PDFs) in QCD is a common tool in the lepton-hadron and hadron-hadron collider data analysis. The standard NLO DGLAP evolution is formulated for inclusive (integrated) PDFs and done using inclusive NLO kernels. We report here on the ongoing project, called KRKMC, in which NLO DGLAP evolution is performed for the exclusive multiparton (fully unintegrated) distributions (ePDFs) with the help of the exclusive kernels. Read More

We investigate the infrared singularity structure of Feynman diagrams entering the next-to-leading-order (NLO) DGLAP kernel (non-singlet). We examine cancellations between diagrams for two gluon emission contributing to NLO kernels. We observe the crucial role of color coherence effects in cancellations of infra-red singularities. Read More

A general formalism was introduced for reorganization of QCD evolution equations and derivation of hierarchical solution to DGLAP equation. The hierarchical solution separates two types of parton emissions: the flavour changing emissions and the diagonal ones (bremsstrahlung). It has been shown that both of the achieved processes are of the Markovian type, what gives a nice possibility of Monte Carlo implementation. Read More