A. Kievsky - INFN, Pisa

A. Kievsky
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Name
A. Kievsky
Affiliation
INFN, Pisa
City
Pisa
Country
Italy

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Nuclear Theory (46)
 
Physics - Atomic and Molecular Clusters (7)
 
Nuclear Experiment (5)
 
Physics - Atomic Physics (3)
 
Quantum Physics (2)
 
Physics - Other (1)
 
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Publications Authored By A. Kievsky

The universal behavior of a three-boson system close to the unitary limit is encoded in a simple dependence of many observables in terms of few parameters. For example the product of the three-body parameter $\kappa_*$ and the two-body scattering length $a$, $\kappa_* a$ depends on the angle $\xi$ defined by $E_3/E_2=\tan^2\xi$. A similar dependence is observed in the ratio $a_{AD}/a$ with $a_{AD}$ the boson-dimer scattering length. Read More

In chiral effective field theory the leading order (LO) nucleon-nucleon potential includes two contact terms, in the two spin channels $S=0,1$, and the one-pion-exchange potential. When the pion degrees of freedom are integrated out, as in the pionless effective field theory, the LO potential includes two contact terms only. In the three-nucleon system, the pionless theory includes a three-nucleon contact term interaction at LO whereas the chiral effective theory does not. Read More

p-3H and n-3He scattering in the energy range above the n-3He but below the d-d thresholds is studied by solving the 4-nucleon problem with a realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction. Three different methods -- Alt, Grassberger and Sandhas, Hyperspherical Harmonics, and Faddeev-Yakubovsky -- have been employed and their results for both elastic and charge-exchange processes are compared. We observe a good agreement between the three different methods, thus the obtained results may serve as a benchmark. Read More

The charge and magnetic form factors, FC and FM, of 3He have been extracted in the kinematic range 25 fm-2 < Q2 < 61 fm-2 from elastic electron scattering by detecting 3He recoil nuclei and electrons in coincidence with the High Resolution Spectrometers of the Hall A Facility at Jefferson Lab. The measurements are indicative of a second diffraction minimum for the magnetic form factor, which was predicted in the Q2 range of this experiment, and of a continuing diffractive structure for the charge form factor. The data are in qualitative agreement with theoretical calculations based on realistic interactions and accurate methods to solve the three-body nuclear problem. Read More

Using two-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions derived in the framework of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) with and without the explicit $\Delta$ isobar contributions, we calculate the energy per particle of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter in the framework of the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach. In particular, we present for the first time nuclear matter calculations using the new fully local in coordinate-space two-nucleon interaction at the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order (N3LO) of ChPT with $\Delta$ isobar intermediate states (N3LO$\Delta$) recently developed by Piarulli et al. [arXiv:1606:06335]. Read More

We present fully local versions of the minimally non-local nucleon-nucleon potentials constructed in a previous paper [M.\ Piarulli {\it et al.}, Phys. Read More

We evaluate the Fermi and Gamow-Teller (GT) matrix elements in tritium $\beta$-decay by including in the charge-changing weak current the corrections up to one loop recently derived in nuclear chiral effective field theory ($\chi$ EFT). The trinucleon wave functions are obtained from hyperspherical-harmonics solutions of the Schrodinger equation with two- and three-nucleon potentials corresponding to either $\chi$ EFT (the N3LO/N2LO combination) or meson-exchange phenomenology (the AV18/UIX combination). We find that contributions due to loop corrections in the axial current are, in relative terms, as large as (and in some cases, dominate) those from one-pion exchange, which nominally occur at lower order in the power counting. Read More

Two-, three-, and four-boson systems are studied close to the unitary limit using potential models constructed to reproduce the minimal information given by the two-body scattering length $a$ and the two-body binding energy or virtual state energy $E_2$. The particular path used to reach the unitary limit is given by varying the potential strength. In this way the energy spectrum in the three- and four-boson systems is computed. Read More

The structure of few-fermion systems having $1/2$ spin-isospin symmetry is studied using potential models. The strength and range of the two-body potentials are fixed to describe low energy observables in the angular momentum $L=0$ state and spin $S=0,1$ channels of the two-body system. Successively the strength of the potentials are varied in order to explore energy regions in which the two-body scattering lengths are close to the unitary limit. Read More

The astrophysical $S$-factor for the radiative capture $d(p,\gamma)^3$He in the energy-range of interest for Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) is calculated using an {\it ab-initio} approach. The nuclear Hamiltonian retains both two- and three-nucleon interactions - the Argonne $v_{18}$ and the Urbana IX, respectively. Both one- and many-body contributions to the nuclear current operator are included. Read More

We discuss weakly bound states of a few-fermion system having spin-isospin symmetry. This corresponds to the nuclear physics case in which the singlet, $a_0$, and triplet, $a_1$, $n-p$ scattering lengths are large with respect to the range of the nuclear interaction. The ratio of the two is about $a_0/a_1\approx-4. Read More

Using potential models we analyze range corrections to the universal law dictated by the Efimov theory of three bosons. In the case of finite-range interactions we have observed that, at first order, it is necessary to supplement the theory with one finite-range parameter, $\Gamma_n^3$, for each specific $n$-level [Kievsky and Gattobigio, Phys. Rev. Read More

Using the hyperspherical adiabatic method with the realistic nuclear potentials Argonne V14, Argonne V18, and Argonne V18 with the Urbana IX three-body potential, we calculate the adiabatic potentials and the triton bound state energies. We find that a discrete variable representation with the slow variable discretization method along the hyperradial degree of freedom results in energies consistent with the literature. However, using a Laguerre basis results in missing energy, even when extrapolated to an infinite number of basis functions and channels. Read More

We calculate the energy per particle of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter using the microscopic many-body Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) approach and employing the Argonne V18 (AV18) nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential supplemented with two different three-nucleon force models recently constructed to reproduce the binding energy of $^3$H, $^3$He and $^4$He nuclei as well as the neutron-deuteron doublet scattering length. We find that none of these new three-nucleon force models is able to reproduce simultaneously the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter and the properties of three- and four-nucleon systems. Read More

We present a precise measurement of double-polarization asymmetries in the $^3\vec{\mathrm{He}}(\vec{\mathrm{e}},\mathrm{e}'\mathrm{d})$ reaction. This particular process is a uniquely sensitive probe of hadron dynamics in $^3\mathrm{He}$ and the structure of the underlying electromagnetic currents. The measurements have been performed in and around quasi-elastic kinematics at $Q^2 = 0. Read More

General expressions for the breakup cross sections in the lab frame for $1+2$ reactions are given in terms of the hyperspherical adiabatic basis. The three-body wave function is expanded in this basis and the corresponding hyperradial functions are obtained by solving a set of second order differential equations. The ${\cal S}$-matrix is computed by using two recently derived integral relations. Read More

We present the analysis of the $N$-boson spectrum computed using a soft two-body potential the strength of which has been varied in order to cover an extended range of positive and negative values of the two-body scattering length $a$ close to the unitary limit. The spectrum shows a tree structure of two states, one shallow and one deep, attached to the ground-state of the system with one less particle. It is governed by an unique universal function, $\Delta(\xi)$, already known in the case of three bosons. Read More

It is well-known that three-boson systems show the Efimov effect when the two-body scattering length $a$ is large with respect to the range of the two-body interaction. This effect is a manifestation of a discrete scaling invariance (DSI). In this work we study DSI in the $N$-body system by analysing the spectrum of $N$ identical bosons obtained with a pairwise gaussian interaction close to the unitary limit. Read More

We reconsider the derivation of the nucleon-nucleon parity-violating (PV) potential within a chiral effective field theory framework. We construct the potential up to next-to-next-to-leading order by including one-pion-exchange, two-pion-exchange, contact, and 1/M (M being the nucleon mass) terms, and use dimensional regularization to renormalize the pion-loop corrections. A detailed analysis of the number of independent low-energy constants (LEC's) entering the potential is carried out. Read More

The charge form factor of $^$4He has been extracted in the range 29 fm$^{-2}$ $\le Q^2 \le 77$ fm$^{-2}$ from elastic electron scattering, detecting $^4$He nuclei and electrons in coincidence with the High Resolution Spectrometers of the Hall A Facility of Jefferson Lab. The results are in qualitative agreement with realistic meson-nucleon theoretical calculations. The data have uncovered a second diffraction minimum, which was predicted in the $Q^2$ range of this experiment, and rule out conclusively long-standing predictions of dimensional scaling of high-energy amplitudes using quark counting. Read More

Universal behaviour has been found inside the window of Efimov physics for systems with $N=4,5,6$ particles. Efimov physics refers to the emergence of a number of three-body states in systems of identical bosons interacting {\it via} a short-range interaction becoming infinite at the verge of binding two particles. These Efimov states display a discrete scale invariance symmetry, with the scaling factor independent of the microscopic interaction. Read More

We present a detailed study of the effect of different three-nucleon interaction models in p-3He elastic scattering at low energies. In particular, two models have been considered: one derived from effective field theory at next-to-next-to-leading order and one derived from a more phenomenological point of view -- the so-called Illinois model. The four-nucleon scattering observables are calculated using the Kohn variational principle and the hyperspherical harmonics technique and the results are compared with available experimental data. Read More

We investigate universal behavior in the recombination rate of three bosons close to threshold. Using the He-He system as a reference, we solve the three-body Schr\"odinger equation above the dimer threshold for different potentials having large values of the two-body scattering length $a$. To this aim we use the hyperspherical adiabatic expansion and we extract the $S$-matrix through the integral relations recently derived. Read More

We investigate universal behavior in elastic atom-dimer scattering below the dimer breakup threshold calculating the atom-dimer effective-range function $ak\cot\delta$. Using the He-He system as a reference, we solve the Schr\"odinger equation for a family of potentials having different values of the two-body scattering length $a$ and we compare our results to the universal zero-range form deduced by Efimov, $ak\cot\delta=c_1(ka)+c_2(ka)\cot[s_0\ln(\kappa_*a)+\phi(ka)]$, for selected values of the three-body parameter $\kappa_*$. Using the parametrization of the universal functions $c_1,c_2,\phi$ given in the literature, a good agreement with the universal formula is obtained after introducing a particular type of finite-range corrections. Read More

We study small clusters of bosons, $A=2,3,4,5,6$, characterized by a resonant interaction. Firstly, we use a soft-gaussian interaction that reproduces the values of the dimer binding energy and the atom-atom scattering length obtained with LM2M2 potential, a widely used $^4$He-$^4$He interaction. We change the intensity of the potential to explore the clusters' spectra in different regions with large positive and large negative values of the two-body scattering length and we report the clusters' energies on Efimov plot, which makes the scale invariance explicit. Read More

The integral relations formalism introduced in \cite{bar09,rom11}, and designed to describe 1+$N$ reactions, is extended here to collision energies above the threshold for the target breakup. These two relations are completely general, and in this work they are used together with the adiabatic expansion method for the description of 1+2 reactions. The neutron-deuteron breakup, for which benchmark calculations are available, is taken as a test of the method. Read More

The effect of the inclusion of different models of three nucleon (3N) forces in p-3He elastic scattering at low energies is studied. Two models have been considered: one derived from effective field theory at next-to-next-to-leading order and one derived from a more phenomenological point of view -- the so-called Illinois model. The four nucleon scattering observables are calculated using the Kohn variational principle and the hyperspherical harmonic technique and the results are compared with available experimental data. Read More

A satisfactory description of bound and scattering states of the three-nucleon (3N) system is still lacking, contrary to what happens in the two-nucleon case. In the framework of chiral effective theory, it is possible that a realistic 3N interaction will require the inclusion of subleading contact terms, which are unconstrained by chiral symmetry. We construct the minimal 3N contact Lagrangian imposing all constraints from the discrete symmetries, Fierz identities and Poincar\'e covariance, and show that it consists of 10 independent operators. Read More

In this work we investigate small clusters of bosons using the hyperspherical harmonic basis. We consider systems with $A=2,3,4,5,6$ particles interacting through a soft inter-particle potential. In order to make contact with a real system, we use an attractive gaussian potential that reproduces the values of the dimer binding energy and the atom-atom scattering length obtained with one of the most widely used $^4$He-$^4$He interactions, the LM2M2 potential. Read More

In this work we show results for light nuclear systems and small clusters of helium atoms using the hyperspherical harmonics basis. We use the basis without previous symmetrization or antisymmetrization of the state. After the diagonalization of the Hamiltonian matrix, the eigenvectors have well defined symmetry under particle permutation and the identification of the physical states is possible. Read More

The muon-capture reactions 2H(\mu^-,\nu_\mu)nn and 3He(\mu^-,\nu_\mu)3H are studied with nuclear strong-interaction potentials and charge-changing weak currents, derived in chiral effective field theory. The low-energy constants (LEC's) c_D and c_E, present in the three-nucleon potential and (c_D) axial-vector current, are constrained to reproduce the A=3 binding energies and the triton Gamow-Teller matrix element. The vector weak current is related to the isovector component of the electromagnetic current via the conserved-vector-current constraint, and the two LEC's entering the contact terms in the latter are constrained to reproduce the A=3 magnetic moments. Read More

Bound-state-like wave functions are used to determine the scattering matrix corresponding to low energy $N-d$ and $p-^3$He collisions. To this end, the coupled channel form of the integral relations derived from the Kohn variational principle is used. The construction of degenerate bound-state-like wave functions belonging to the continuum spectrum of the Hamiltonian is discussed. Read More

The n-3H and p-3He elastic phase-shifts below the trinucleon disintegration thresholds are calculated by solving the 4-nucleon problem with three different realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions (the I-N3LO model by Entem and Machleidt, the Argonne v18 potential model, and a low-k model derived from the CD-Bonn potential). Three different methods -- Alt, Grassberger and Sandhas, Hyperspherical Harmonics, and Faddeev-Yakubovsky -- have been used and their respective results are compared. For both n-3H and p-3He we observe a rather good agreement between the three different theoretical methods. Read More

In this work we investigate small clusters of helium atoms using the hyperspherical harmonic basis. We consider systems with $A=2,3,4,5,6$ atoms with an inter-particle potential which does not present a strong repulsion at short distances. We use an attractive gaussian potential that reproduces the values of the dimer binding energy, the atom-atom scattering length, and the effective range obtained with one of the widely used He-He interactions, the LM2M2 potential. Read More

Two different aspects of the description of three- and four-nucleon systems are addressed. The use of bound state like wave functions to describe scattering states in $N-d$ collisions at low energies and the effects of some of the widely used three-nucleon force models in selected polarization observables in the three- and four-nucleon systems are discussed. Read More

2011Feb
Affiliations: 1Salento U. and INFN, Lecce, 2INFN, Pisa, 3INFN, Pisa
Category: Nuclear Theory

We obtain a minimal form of the two-derivative three-nucleon contact Lagrangian, by imposing all constraints deriving from discrete symmetries, Fierz identities and Poincare' covariance. The resulting interaction, depending on 10 unknown low-energy constants, leads to a three-nucleon potential which we give in a local form in configuration space. We also consider the leading (no-derivative) four-nucleon interaction and show that there exists only one independent operator. Read More

2011Jan
Affiliations: 1IEM, CSIC, Madrid, 2IEM, CSIC, Madrid, 3University College London, UK, 4INFN, Pisa, Italy, 5INFN, Pisa, Italy

In this work we investigate 1+2 reactions within the framework of the hyperspherical adiabatic expansion method. To this aim two integral relations, derived from the Kohn variational principle, are used. A detailed derivation of these relations is shown. Read More

The helium trimer is studied using two- and three-body soft-core potentials. Realistic helium-helium potentials present an extremely strong short-range repulsion and support a single, very shallow, bound state. The description of systems with more than two helium atoms is difficult due to the very large cancellation between kinetic and potential energy. Read More

The Relativistic Distorted-Wave Impulse Approximation is used to describe the $^3$He($e,e^\prime p$)$^2$H process. We describe the $^3$He nucleus within the adiabatic hyperspherical expansion method with realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions. The overlap between the $^3$He and the deuteron wave functions can be accurately computed from a three-body calculation. Read More

The Hyperspherical Harmonics basis, without a previous symmetrization step, is used to calculate binding energies of the nuclear A=6 systems using a version of the Volkov potential acting only on s-wave. The aim of this work is to illustrate the use of the nonsymmetrized basis to deal with permutational-symmetry-breaking term in the Hamiltonian, in the present case the Coulomb interaction. Read More

Using modern nucleon-nucleon interactions in the description of the $A=3,4$ nuclear systems the $\chi^2$ per datum results to be much bigger than one. In particular it is not possible to reproduce the three- and four-nucleon binding energies and the $n-d$ scattering length simultaneously. This is one manifestation of the necessity of including a three-nucleon force in the nuclear Hamiltonian. Read More

The use of the hyperspherical harmonic (HH) basis in the description of bound states in an $A$-body system composed by identical particles is normally preceded by a symmetrization procedure in which the statistic of the system is taken into account. This preliminary step is not strictly necessary; the direct use of the HH basis is possible, even if the basis has not a well defined behavior under particle permutations. In fact, after the diagonalization of the Hamiltonian matrix, the eigenvectors reflect the symmetries present in it. Read More

The muon capture reactions 2H(\mu^-,\nu_\mu)nn and 3He(\mu^-,\nu_\mu)3H are studied with conventional or chiral realistic potentials and consistent weak currents. The initial and final A=2 and 3 nuclear wave functions are obtained from the Argonne v18 or chiral N3LO two-nucleon potential, in combination with, respectively, the Urbana IX or chiral N2LO three-nucleon potential in the case of A=3. The weak current consists of polar- and axial-vector components. Read More

We report on a study of the $nd$ and $n\,^3$He radiative captures at thermal neutron energies, using wave functions obtained from either chiral or conventional two- and three-nucleon realistic potentials with the hyperspherical harmonics method, and electromagnetic currents derived in chiral effective field theory up to one loop. The predicted $nd$ and $n\,^3$He cross sections are in good agreement with data, but exhibit a significant dependence on the input Hamiltonian. A comparison is also made between these and new results for the $nd$ and $n\,^3$He cross sections obtained in the conventional framework for both potentials and currents. Read More

The longitudinal asymmetry induced by parity-violating (PV) components in the nucleon-nucleon potential is studied in the charge-exchange reaction 3He(n,p)3H at vanishing incident neutron energies. An expression for the PV observable is derived in terms of T-matrix elements for transitions from the {2S+1}L_J=1S_0 and 3S_1 states in the incoming n-3He channel to states with J=0 and 1 in the outgoing p-3H channel. The T-matrix elements involving PV transitions are obtained in first-order perturbation theory in the hadronic weak-interaction potential, while those connecting states of the same parity are derived from solutions of the strong-interaction Hamiltonian with the hyperspherical-harmonics method. Read More

The Kohn variational principle and the hyperspherical harmonic technique are applied to study p-3He elastic scattering at low energies. Preliminary results obtained using several interaction models are reported. The calculations are compared to a recent phase shift analysis performed at the Triangle University Nuclear Laboratory and to the available experimental data. Read More

Two integral relations derived from the Kohn Variational Principle (KVP) are used for describing scattering states. In usual applications the KVP requires the explicit form of the asymptotic behavior of the scattering wave function. This is not the case when the integral relations are applied since, due to their short range nature, the only condition for the scattering wave function $\Psi$ is that it be the solution of $(H-E)\Psi=0$ in the internal region. Read More

Using modern nucleon-nucleon interactions in the description of the $A=3,4$ nuclei, it is not possible to reproduce both the three- and four-nucleon binding energies simultaneously. This is one manifestation of the necessity of including a three-nucleon force in the nuclear Hamiltonian. In this paper we will perform a comparative study of some, widely used, three-nucleon force models. Read More

Using modern nucleon-nucleon interactions in the description of the $A=3,4$ nuclei, it is not possible to reproduce both the three- and four-nucleon binding energies simultaneously. This is one manifestation of the necessity of including a three-nucleon force in the nuclear Hamiltonian. Several models of the three-nucleon force exist and are applied in the description of light nuclei. Read More

The application of the hyperspherical harmonic approach to the case of the N-d scattering problem below deuteron breakup threshold is described. The nuclear Hamiltonian includes two- and three-nucleon interactions, in particular the Argonne v_{18}, the N3LO-Idaho, and the V_{low k} two-nucleon, and the Urbana IX and N2LO three-nucleon interactions. Some of these models are local, some are non-local. Read More