# A. Fowler - The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

## Contact Details

NameA. Fowler |
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AffiliationThe University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory |
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CityChapel Hill |
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CountryUnited States |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesQuantum Physics (44) Physics - Superconductivity (11) Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (8) Physics - Other (2) Mathematics - Number Theory (1) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (1) Computer Science - Human-Computer Interaction (1) Computer Science - Data Structures and Algorithms (1) Physics - Chemical Physics (1) Physics - Accelerator Physics (1) High Energy Physics - Experiment (1) Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors (1) Physics - Geophysics (1) Computer Science - Computers and Society (1) |

## Publications Authored By A. Fowler

**Authors:**C. M. Quintana, Yu Chen, D. Sank, A. G. Petukhov, T. C. White, Dvir Kafri, B. Chiaro, A. Megrant, R. Barends, B. Campbell, Z. Chen, A. Dunsworth, A. G. Fowler, R. Graff, E. Jeffrey, J. Kelly, E. Lucero, J. Y. Mutus, M. Neeley, C. Neill, P. J. J. O'Malley, P. Roushan, A. Shabani, V. N. Smelyanskiy, A. Vainsencher, J. Wenner, H. Neven, John M. Martinis

By analyzing the dissipative dynamics of a tunable gap flux qubit, we extract both sides of its two-sided environmental flux noise spectral density over a range of frequencies around $2k_BT/h \approx 1\,\rm{GHz}$, allowing for the observation of a classical-quantum crossover. Below the crossover point, the symmetric noise component follows a $1/f$ power law that matches the magnitude of the $1/f$ noise near $1\,{\rm{Hz}}$. The antisymmetric component displays a 1/T dependence below $100\,\rm{mK}$, providing dynamical evidence for a paramagnetic environment. Read More

**Authors:**The CLIC, CLICdp collaborations, :, M. J. Boland, U. Felzmann, P. J. Giansiracusa, T. G. Lucas, R. P. Rassool, C. Balazs, T. K. Charles, K. Afanaciev, I. Emeliantchik, A. Ignatenko, V. Makarenko, N. Shumeiko, A. Patapenka, I. Zhuk, A. C. Abusleme Hoffman, M. A. Diaz Gutierrez, M. Vogel Gonzalez, Y. Chi, X. He, G. Pei, S. Pei, G. Shu, X. Wang, J. Zhang, F. Zhao, Z. Zhou, H. Chen, Y. Gao, W. Huang, Y. P. Kuang, B. Li, Y. Li, J. Shao, J. Shi, C. Tang, X. Wu, L. Ma, Y. Han, W. Fang, Q. Gu, D. Huang, X. Huang, J. Tan, Z. Wang, Z. Zhao, T. Laštovička, U. Uggerhoj, T. N. Wistisen, A. Aabloo, K. Eimre, K. Kuppart, S. Vigonski, V. Zadin, M. Aicheler, E. Baibuz, E. Brücken, F. Djurabekova, P. Eerola, F. Garcia, E. Haeggström, K. Huitu, V. Jansson, V. Karimaki, I. Kassamakov, A. Kyritsakis, S. Lehti, A. Meriläinen, R. Montonen, T. Niinikoski, K. Nordlund, K. Österberg, M. Parekh, N. A. Törnqvist, J. Väinölä, M. Veske, W. Farabolini, A. Mollard, O. Napoly, F. Peauger, J. Plouin, P. Bambade, I. Chaikovska, R. Chehab, M. Davier, W. Kaabi, E. Kou, F. LeDiberder, R. Pöschl, D. Zerwas, B. Aimard, G. Balik, J. -P. Baud, J. -J. Blaising, L. Brunetti, M. Chefdeville, C. Drancourt, N. Geoffroy, J. Jacquemier, A. Jeremie, Y. Karyotakis, J. M. Nappa, S. Vilalte, G. Vouters, A. Bernard, I. Peric, M. Gabriel, F. Simon, M. Szalay, N. van der Kolk, T. Alexopoulos, E. N. Gazis, N. Gazis, E. Ikarios, V. Kostopoulos, S. Kourkoulis, P. D. Gupta, P. Shrivastava, H. Arfaei, M. K. Dayyani, H. Ghasem, S. S. Hajari, H. Shaker, Y. Ashkenazy, H. Abramowicz, Y. Benhammou, O. Borysov, S. Kananov, A. Levy, I. Levy, O. Rosenblat, G. D'Auria, S. Di Mitri, T. Abe, A. Aryshev, T. Higo, Y. Makida, S. Matsumoto, T. Shidara, T. Takatomi, Y. Takubo, T. Tauchi, N. Toge, K. Ueno, J. Urakawa, A. Yamamoto, M. Yamanaka, R. Raboanary, R. Hart, H. van der Graaf, G. Eigen, J. Zalieckas, E. Adli, R. Lillestøl, L. Malina, J. Pfingstner, K. N. Sjobak, W. Ahmed, M. I. Asghar, H. Hoorani, S. Bugiel, R. Dasgupta, M. Firlej, T. A. Fiutowski, M. Idzik, M. Kopec, M. Kuczynska, J. Moron, K. P. Swientek, W. Daniluk, B. Krupa, M. Kucharczyk, T. Lesiak, A. Moszczynski, B. Pawlik, P. Sopicki, T. Wojtoń, L. Zawiejski, J. Kalinowski, M. Krawczyk, A. F. Żarnecki, E. Firu, V. Ghenescu, A. T. Neagu, T. Preda, I-S. Zgura, A. Aloev, N. Azaryan, J. Budagov, M. Chizhov, M. Filippova, V. Glagolev, A. Gongadze, S. Grigoryan, D. Gudkov, V. Karjavine, M. Lyablin, A. Olyunin, A. Samochkine, A. Sapronov, G. Shirkov, V. Soldatov, A. Solodko, E. Solodko, G. Trubnikov, I. Tyapkin, V. Uzhinsky, A. Vorozhtov, E. Levichev, N. Mezentsev, P. Piminov, D. Shatilov, P. Vobly, K. Zolotarev, I. Bozovic Jelisavcic, G. Kacarevic, S. Lukic, G. Milutinovic-Dumbelovic, M. Pandurovic, U. Iriso, F. Perez, M. Pont, J. Trenado, M. Aguilar-Benitez, J. Calero, L. Garcia-Tabares, D. Gavela, J. L. Gutierrez, D. Lopez, F. Toral, D. Moya, A. Ruiz Jimeno, I. Vila, T. Argyropoulos, C. Blanch Gutierrez, M. Boronat, D. Esperante, A. Faus-Golfe, J. Fuster, N. Fuster Martinez, N. Galindo Muñoz, I. García, J. Giner Navarro, E. Ros, M. Vos, R. Brenner, T. Ekelöf, M. Jacewicz, J. Ögren, M. Olvegård, R. Ruber, V. Ziemann, D. Aguglia, N. Alipour Tehrani, A. Andersson, F. Andrianala, F. Antoniou, K. Artoos, S. Atieh, R. Ballabriga Sune, M. J. Barnes, J. Barranco Garcia, H. Bartosik, C. Belver-Aguilar, A. Benot Morell, D. R. Bett, S. Bettoni, G. Blanchot, O. Blanco Garcia, X. A. Bonnin, O. Brunner, H. Burkhardt, S. Calatroni, M. Campbell, N. Catalan Lasheras, M. Cerqueira Bastos, A. Cherif, E. Chevallay, B. Constance, R. Corsini, B. Cure, S. Curt, B. Dalena, D. Dannheim, G. De Michele, L. De Oliveira, N. Deelen, J. P. Delahaye, T. Dobers, S. Doebert, M. Draper, F. Duarte Ramos, A. Dubrovskiy, K. Elsener, J. Esberg, M. Esposito, V. Fedosseev, P. Ferracin, A. Fiergolski, K. Foraz, A. Fowler, F. Friebel, J-F. Fuchs, C. A. Fuentes Rojas, A. Gaddi, L. Garcia Fajardo, H. Garcia Morales, C. Garion, L. Gatignon, J-C. Gayde, H. Gerwig, A. N. Goldblatt, C. Grefe, A. Grudiev, F. G. Guillot-Vignot, M. L. Gutt-Mostowy, M. Hauschild, C. Hessler, J. K. Holma, E. Holzer, M. Hourican, D. Hynds, Y. Inntjore Levinsen, B. Jeanneret, E. Jensen, M. Jonker, M. Kastriotou, J. M. K. Kemppinen, R. B. Kieffer, W. Klempt, O. Kononenko, A. Korsback, E. Koukovini Platia, J. W. Kovermann, C-I. Kozsar, I. Kremastiotis, S. Kulis, A. Latina, F. Leaux, P. Lebrun, T. Lefevre, L. Linssen, X. Llopart Cudie, A. A. Maier, H. Mainaud Durand, E. Manosperti, C. Marelli, E. Marin Lacoma, R. Martin, S. Mazzoni, G. Mcmonagle, O. Mete, L. M. Mether, M. Modena, R. M. Münker, T. Muranaka, E. Nebot Del Busto, N. Nikiforou, D. Nisbet, J-M. Nonglaton, F. X. Nuiry, A. Nürnberg, M. Olvegard, J. Osborne, S. Papadopoulou, Y. Papaphilippou, A. Passarelli, M. Patecki, L. Pazdera, D. Pellegrini, K. Pepitone, E. Perez Codina, A. Perez Fontenla, T. H. B. Persson, M. Petrič, F. Pitters, S. Pittet, F. Plassard, R. Rajamak, S. Redford, Y. Renier, S. F. Rey, G. Riddone, L. Rinolfi, E. Rodriguez Castro, P. Roloff, C. Rossi, V. Rude, G. Rumolo, A. Sailer, E. Santin, D. Schlatter, H. Schmickler, D. Schulte, N. Shipman, E. Sicking, R. Simoniello, P. K. Skowronski, P. Sobrino Mompean, L. Soby, M. P. Sosin, S. Sroka, S. Stapnes, G. Sterbini, R. Ström, I. Syratchev, F. Tecker, P. A. Thonet, L. Timeo, H. Timko, R. Tomas Garcia, P. Valerio, A. L. Vamvakas, A. Vivoli, M. A. Weber, R. Wegner, M. Wendt, B. Woolley, W. Wuensch, J. Uythoven, H. Zha, P. Zisopoulos, M. Benoit, M. Vicente Barreto Pinto, M. Bopp, H. H. Braun, M. Csatari Divall, M. Dehler, T. Garvey, J. Y. Raguin, L. Rivkin, R. Zennaro, A. Aksoy, Z. Nergiz, E. Pilicer, I. Tapan, O. Yavas, V. Baturin, R. Kholodov, S. Lebedynskyi, V. Miroshnichenko, S. Mordyk, I. Profatilova, V. Storizhko, N. Watson, A. Winter, J. Goldstein, S. Green, J. S. Marshall, M. A. Thomson, B. Xu, W. A. Gillespie, R. Pan, M. A Tyrk, D. Protopopescu, A. Robson, R. Apsimon, I. Bailey, G. Burt, D. Constable, A. Dexter, S. Karimian, C. Lingwood, M. D. Buckland, G. Casse, J. Vossebeld, A. Bosco, P. Karataev, K. Kruchinin, K. Lekomtsev, L. Nevay, J. Snuverink, E. Yamakawa, V. Boisvert, S. Boogert, G. Boorman, S. Gibson, A. Lyapin, W. Shields, P. Teixeira-Dias, S. West, R. Jones, N. Joshi, R. Bodenstein, P. N. Burrows, G. B. Christian, D. Gamba, C. Perry, J. Roberts, J. A. Clarke, N. A. Collomb, S. P. Jamison, B. J. A. Shepherd, D. Walsh, M. Demarteau, J. Repond, H. Weerts, L. Xia, J. D. Wells, C. Adolphsen, T. Barklow, M. Breidenbach, N. Graf, J. Hewett, T. Markiewicz, D. McCormick, K. Moffeit, Y. Nosochkov, M. Oriunno, N. Phinney, T. Rizzo, S. Tantawi, F. Wang, J. Wang, G. White, M. Woodley

The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a multi-TeV high-luminosity linear e+e- collider under development. For an optimal exploitation of its physics potential, CLIC is foreseen to be built and operated in a staged approach with three centre-of-mass energy stages ranging from a few hundred GeV up to 3 TeV. The first stage will focus on precision Standard Model physics, in particular Higgs and top-quark measurements. Read More

Surface distributions of two level system (TLS) defects and magnetic vortices are limiting dissipation sources in superconducting quantum circuits. Arrays of flux-trapping holes are commonly used to eliminate loss due to magnetic vortices, but may increase dielectric TLS loss. We find that dielectric TLS loss increases by approximately 25% for resonators with a hole array beginning 2 $\mu \text{m}$ from the resonator edge, while the dielectric loss added by holes further away was below measurement sensitivity. Read More

The yield of physical qubits fabricated in the laboratory is much lower than that of classical transistors in production semiconductor fabrication. Actual implementations of quantum computers will be susceptible to loss in the form of physically faulty qubits. Though these physical faults must negatively affect the computation, we can deal with them by adapting error correction schemes. Read More

**Authors:**Daniel Sank, Zijun Chen, Mostafa Khezri, J. Kelly, R. Barends, B. Campbell, Y. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, A. Fowler, E. Jeffrey, E. Lucero, A. Megrant, J. Mutus, M. Neeley, C. Neill, P. J. J. O'Malley, C. Quintana, P. Roushan, A. Vainsencher, J. Wenner, T. White, Alexander N. Korotkov, John M. Martinis

**Category:**Quantum Physics

Many superconducting qubit systems use the dispersive interaction between the qubit and a coupled harmonic resonator to perform quantum state measurement. Previous works have found that such measurements can induce state transitions in the qubit if the number of photons in the resonator is too high. We investigate these transitions and find that they can push the qubit out of the two-level subspace, and that they show resonant behavior as a function of photon number. Read More

Quantum computing architectures are on the verge of scalability, a key requirement for the implementation of a universal quantum computer. The next stage in this quest is the realization of quantum error correction codes, which will mitigate the impact of faulty quantum information on a quantum computer. Architectures with ten or more quantum bits (qubits) have been realized using trapped ions and superconducting circuits. Read More

**Authors:**P. Roushan, C. Neill, A. Megrant, Y. Chen, R. Babbush, R. Barends, B. Campbell, Z. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, A. Fowler, E. Jeffrey, J. Kelly, E. Lucero, J. Mutus, P. J. J. O'Malley, M. Neeley, C. Quintana, D. Sank, A. Vainsencher, J. Wenner, T. White, E. Kapit, H. Neven, J. Martinis

**Category:**Quantum Physics

The intriguing many-body phases of quantum matter arise from the interplay of particle interactions, spatial symmetries, and external fields. Generating these phases in an engineered system could provide deeper insight into their nature and the potential for harnessing their unique properties. However, concurrently bringing together the main ingredients for realizing many-body phenomena in a single experimental platform is a major challenge. Read More

Given a quantum algorithm, it is highly nontrivial to devise an efficient sequence of physical gates implementing the algorithm on real hardware and incorporating topological quantum error correction. In this paper, we present a first step towards this goal, focusing on generating correct and simple arrangements of topological structures that correspond to a given quantum circuit and largely neglecting their efficiency. We detail the many challenges that will need to be tackled in the pursuit of efficiency. Read More

**Authors:**J. Kelly, R. Barends, A. G. Fowler, A. Megrant, E. Jeffrey, T. C. White, D. Sank, J. Y. Mutus, B. Campbell, Yu Chen, Z. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, E. Lucero, M. Neeley, C. Neill, P. J. J. O'Malley, C. Quintana, P. Roushan, A. Vainsencher, J. Wenner, John M. Martinis

**Category:**Quantum Physics

We present a method to optimize qubit control parameters during error detection which is compatible with large-scale qubit arrays. We demonstrate our method to optimize single or two-qubit gates in parallel on a nine-qubit system. Additionally, we show how parameter drift can be compensated for during computation by inserting a frequency drift and using our method to remove it. Read More

**Authors:**P. J. J. O'Malley, R. Babbush, I. D. Kivlichan, J. Romero, J. R. McClean, R. Barends, J. Kelly, P. Roushan, A. Tranter, N. Ding, B. Campbell, Y. Chen, Z. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, A. G. Fowler, E. Jeffrey, A. Megrant, J. Y. Mutus, C. Neill, C. Quintana, D. Sank, A. Vainsencher, J. Wenner, T. C. White, P. V. Coveney, P. J. Love, H. Neven, A. Aspuru-Guzik, J. M. Martinis

We report the first electronic structure calculation performed on a quantum computer without exponentially costly precompilation. We use a programmable array of superconducting qubits to compute the energy surface of molecular hydrogen using two distinct quantum algorithms. First, we experimentally execute the unitary coupled cluster method using the variational quantum eigensolver. Read More

**Authors:**R. Barends, A. Shabani, L. Lamata, J. Kelly, A. Mezzacapo, U. Las Heras, R. Babbush, A. G. Fowler, B. Campbell, Yu Chen, Z. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, E. Jeffrey, E. Lucero, A. Megrant, J. Y. Mutus, M. Neeley, C. Neill, P. J. J. O'Malley, C. Quintana, P. Roushan, D. Sank, A. Vainsencher, J. Wenner, T. C. White, E. Solano, H. Neven, John M. Martinis

A major challenge in quantum computing is to solve general problems with limited physical hardware. Here, we implement digitized adiabatic quantum computing, combining the generality of the adiabatic algorithm with the universality of the digital approach, using a superconducting circuit with nine qubits. We probe the adiabatic evolutions, and quantify the success of the algorithm for random spin problems. Read More

Leakage errors occur when a quantum system leaves the two-level qubit subspace. Reducing these errors is critically important for quantum error correction to be viable. To quantify leakage errors, we use randomized benchmarking in conjunction with measurement of the leakage population. Read More

The availability of a universal quantum computer will have fundamental impact on a vast number of research fields and society as a whole. An increasingly large scientific and industrial community is working towards the realization of such a device. An arbitrarily large quantum computer is best constructed using a modular approach. Read More

Observations have long associated ice streams with the presence of meltwater at the bed. More recently, theoretical models have been able to reproduce ice-stream behaviour as a consequence of the coupled dynamics of ice and subglacial meltwater. In this paper we analyse the properties of ice streams that form in a coupled model of ice flow and subglacial hydrology. Read More

There has been an increasing interest in the debate on the value and relevance using video games for learning. Some of the interest stems from frustration with current educational methods. However, some of this interest also stems from the observations of large numbers of children that play video games. Read More

**Authors:**R. Barends, L. Lamata, J. Kelly, L. García-Álvarez, A. G. Fowler, A. Megrant, E. Jeffrey, T. C. White, D. Sank, J. Y. Mutus, B. Campbell, Yu Chen, Z. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, I. -C. Hoi, C. Neill, P. J. J. O'Malley, C. Quintana, P. Roushan, A. Vainsencher, J. Wenner, E. Solano, John M. Martinis

Simulating quantum physics with a device which itself is quantum mechanical, a notion Richard Feynman originated, would be an unparallelled computational resource. However, the universal quantum simulation of fermionic systems is daunting due to their particle statistics, and Feynman left as an open question whether it could be done, because of the need for non-local control. Here, we implement fermionic interactions with digital techniques in a superconducting circuit. Read More

The interval discrete logarithm problem is defined as follows: Given some $g,h$ in a group $G$, and some $N \in \mathbb{N}$ such that $g^z=h$ for some $z$ where $0 \leq z < N$, find $z$. At the moment, kangaroo methods are the best low memory algorithm to solve the interval discrete logarithm problem. The fastest non parallelised kangaroo methods to solve this problem are the three kangaroo method, and the four kangaroo method. Read More

Quantum computing becomes viable when a quantum state can be preserved from environmentally-induced error. If quantum bits (qubits) are sufficiently reliable, errors are sparse and quantum error correction (QEC) is capable of identifying and correcting them. Adding more qubits improves the preservation by guaranteeing increasingly larger clusters of errors will not cause logical failure - a key requirement for large-scale systems. Read More

A precise measurement of dephasing over a range of timescales is critical for improving quantum gates beyond the error correction threshold. We present a metrological tool, based on randomized benchmarking, capable of greatly increasing the precision of Ramsey and spin echo sequences by the repeated but incoherent addition of phase noise. We find our SQUID-based qubit is not limited by $1/f$ flux noise at short timescales, but instead observe a telegraph noise mechanism that is not amenable to study with standard measurement techniques. Read More

The surface code cannot be used when qubits vanish during computation; instead, a variant known as the topological cluster state is necessary. It has a gate error threshold of $0.75% and only requires nearest-neighbor interactions on a 2D array of qubits. Read More

Fault-tolerant Z rotations by pi/2^k are important as they arise in numerous quantum algorithms, most notably those involving quantum Fourier transforms. We describe surface code implementations of two recently described methods of efficiently constructing these rotations. One method uses state distillation to get low-error (|0> + exp(i pi/2^k)|1>)/sqrt(2) states, with each distillation level requiring 2^(k+2)-1 input states to produce a single purer output state, and uses these distilled states to directly implement pi/2^k angle Z rotations. Read More

One of the key challenges in quantum information is coherently manipulating the quantum state. However, it is an outstanding question whether control can be realized with low error. Only gates from the Clifford group -- containing $\pi$, $\pi/2$, and Hadamard gates -- have been characterized with high accuracy. Read More

Superconducting qubits, while promising for scalability and long coherence times, contain more than two energy levels, and therefore are susceptible to errors generated by the leakage of population outside of the computational subspace. Such leakage errors constitute a prominent roadblock towards fault-tolerant quantum computing (FTQC) with superconducting qubits. FTQC using topological codes is based on sequential measurements of multiqubit stabilizer operators. Read More

Accurate methods of assessing the performance of quantum gates are extremely important. Quantum process tomography and randomized benchmarking are the current favored methods. Quantum process tomography gives detailed information, but significant approximations must be made to reduce this information to a form quantum error correction simulations can use. Read More

We present a method for optimizing quantum control in experimental systems, using a subset of randomized benchmarking measurements to rapidly infer error. This is demonstrated to improve single- and two-qubit gates, minimize gate bleedthrough, where a gate mechanism can cause errors on subsequent gates, and identify control crosstalk in superconducting qubits. This method is able to correct parameters to where control errors no longer dominate, and is suitable for automated and closed-loop optimization of experimental systems. Read More

A quantum computer can solve hard problems - such as prime factoring, database searching, and quantum simulation - at the cost of needing to protect fragile quantum states from error. Quantum error correction provides this protection, by distributing a logical state among many physical qubits via quantum entanglement. Superconductivity is an appealing platform, as it allows for constructing large quantum circuits, and is compatible with microfabrication. Read More

Topological quantum error correction codes are known to be able to tolerate arbitrary local errors given sufficient qubits. This includes correlated errors involving many local qubits. In this work, we quantify this level of tolerance, numerically studying the effects of many-qubit errors on the performance of the surface code. Read More

The surface code is designed to suppress errors in quantum computing hardware and currently offers the most believable pathway to large-scale quantum computation. The surface code requires a 2-D array of nearest-neighbor coupled qubits that are capable of implementing a universal set of gates with error rates below approximately 1%, requirements compatible with experimental reality. Consequently, a number of authors are attempting to squeeze additional performance out of the surface code. Read More

Many physical systems considered promising qubit candidates are not, in fact, two-level systems. Such systems can leak out of the preferred computational states, leading to errors on any qubits that interact with leaked qubits. Without specific methods of dealing with leakage, long-lived leakage can lead to time-correlated errors. Read More

Consider a 2-D square array of qubits of extent $L\times L$. We provide a proof that the minimum weight perfect matching problem associated with running a particular class of topological quantum error correction codes on this array can be exactly solved with a 2-D square array of classical computing devices, each of which is nominally associated with a fixed number $N$ of qubits, in constant average time per round of error detection independent of $L$ provided physical error rates are below fixed nonzero values, and other physically reasonable assumptions. This proof is applicable to the fully fault-tolerant case only, not the case of perfect stabilizer measurements. Read More

The surface code is highly practical, enabling arbitrarily reliable quantum computation given a 2-D nearest-neighbor coupled array of qubits with gate error rates below approximately 1%. We describe an open source library, Polyestimate, enabling a user with no knowledge of the surface code to specify realistic physical quantum gate error models and obtain logical error rate estimates. Functions allowing the user to specify simple depolarizing error rates for each gate have also been included. Read More

The majority of quantum error detection and correction protocols assume that the population in a qubit does not leak outside of its computational subspace. For many existing approaches, however, the physical qubits do possess more than two energy levels and consequently are prone to such leakage events. Analyzing the effects of leakage is therefore essential to devise optimal protocols for quantum gates, measurement, and error correction. Read More

The fragile nature of quantum information limits our ability to construct large quantities of quantum bits suitable for quantum computing. An important goal, therefore, is to minimize the amount of resources required to implement quantum algorithms, many of which are serial in nature and leave large numbers of qubits idle much of the time unless compression techniques are used. Furthermore, quantum error-correcting codes, which are required to reduce the effects of noise, introduce additional resource overhead. Read More

State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states |A>=(|0>+e^{i\pi/4}|1>)/\sqrt{2} produced a single improved |A> state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved |A> states given 3k+8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. Read More

We extend the formalism developed in Ref. [20] for the renormalisation of the chargino-neutralino sector to the most general case of the MSSM with complex parameters. We show that products of imaginary parts arising from MSSM parameters and from absorptive parts of loop integrals can already contribute to predictions for physical observables at the one-loop level, and demonstrate that the consistent treatment of such contributions gives rise to non-trivial structure, either in the field renormalisation constants or the corrections associated with the external legs of the considered diagrams. Read More

We consider realistic, multi-parameter error models and investigate the performance of the surface code for three possible fault-tolerant superconducting quantum computer architectures. We map amplitude and phase damping to a diagonal Pauli "depolarization" channel via the Pauli twirl approximation, and obtain the logical error rate as a function of the qubit T1, T2 and state preparation, gate, and readout errors. A numerical Monte Carlo simulation is performed to obtain the logical error rates and a leading-order analytic formula is derived to estimate their behavior below threshold. Read More

Given any quantum error correcting code permitting universal fault-tolerant quantum computation and transversal measurement of logical X and Z, we describe how to perform time-optimal quantum computation, meaning the execution of an arbitrary Clifford circuit followed by a layer of independent T gates and any necessary feedforward measurement determined corrective S gates all in the time of a single physical measurement. We assume fast classical processing and classical communication, and argue the reasonableness of this assumption. This enables fault-tolerant quantum computation to be performed orders of magnitude faster than previously thought possible, with the execution time independent of the error correction strength. Read More

Topologically quantum error corrected logical gates are complex. Chains of errors can form in space and time and diagonally in spacetime. It is highly nontrivial to determine whether a given logical gate is free of low weight combinations of errors leading to failure. Read More

Cyclic boundaries are used in many branches of physics and mathematics, typically to assist the approximation of a large space. We show that when determining the performance of planar, fault-tolerant, topological quantum error correction, using cyclic boundaries leads to a significant underestimate of the logical error rate. We present cyclic and non-cyclic surface code simulations exhibiting this discrepancy, and analytic formulae precisely reproducing the observed behavior in the limit of low physical error. Read More

Two primary challenges stand in the way of practical large-scale quantum computation, namely achieving sufficiently low error rate quantum gates and implementing interesting quantum algorithms with a physically reasonable number of qubits. In this work we address the second challenge, presenting a new technique, bridge compression, which enables remarkably low volume structures to be found that implement complex computations in the surface code. The surface code has a number of highly desirable properties, including the ability to achieve arbitrarily reliable computation given sufficient qubits and quantum gate error rates below approximately 1%, and the use of only a 2-D array of qubits with nearest neighbor interactions. Read More

Topological quantum error correction codes are extremely practical, typically requiring only a 2-D lattice of qubits with tunable nearest neighbor interactions yet tolerating high physical error rates p. It is computationally expensive to simulate the performance of such codes at low p, yet this is a regime we wish to study as low physical error rates lead to low qubit overhead. We present a very general method of analytically estimating the low p performance of the most promising class of topological codes. Read More

This article provides an introduction to surface code quantum computing. We first estimate the size and speed of a surface code quantum computer. We then introduce the concept of the stabilizer, using two qubits, and extend this concept to stabilizers acting on a two-dimensional array of physical qubits, on which we implement the surface code. Read More

The field of quantum computation currently lacks a formal proof of experimental feasibility. Qubits are fragile and sophisticated quantum error correction is required to achieve reliable quantum computation. The surface code is a promising quantum error correction code, requiring only a physically reasonable 2-D lattice of qubits with nearest neighbor interactions. Read More

Many quantum systems are being investigated in the hope of building a large-scale quantum computer. All of these systems suffer from decoherence, resulting in errors during the execution of quantum gates. Quantum error correction enables reliable quantum computation given unreliable hardware. Read More

Scalable quantum computing can only be achieved if qubits are manipulated fault-tolerantly. Topological error correction - a novel method which combines topological quantum computing and quantum error correction - possesses the highest known tolerable error rate for a local architecture. This scheme makes use of cluster states with topological properties and requires only nearest-neighbour interactions. Read More

Topological quantum error correction codes have high thresholds and are well suited to physical implementation. The minimum weight perfect matching algorithm can be used to efficiently handle errors in such codes. We perform a timing analysis of our current implementation of the minimum weight perfect matching algorithm. Read More

We present an improved low-overhead implementation of surface code logical H. We describe in full detail logical H applied to a single distance 7 double-defect logical qubit in an otherwise idle scalable array such qubits. Our goal is to provide a clear description of logical H and to emphasize that the surface code possesses low-overhead implementations of the entire Clifford group. Read More

In this paper we demonstrate how data encoded in a five-qubit quantum error correction code can be converted, fault-tolerantly, into a seven-qubit Steane code. This is achieved by progressing through a series of codes, each of which fault-tolerantly corrects at least one error. Throughout the conversion the encoded qubit remains protected. Read More

In recent years, surface codes have become a leading method for quantum error correction in theoretical large scale computational and communications architecture designs. Their comparatively high fault-tolerant thresholds and their natural 2-dimensional nearest neighbour (2DNN) structure make them an obvious choice for large scale designs in experimentally realistic systems. While fundamentally based on the toric code of Kitaev, there are many variants, two of which are the planar- and defect- based codes. Read More

The surface code is unarguably the leading quantum error correction code for 2-D nearest neighbor architectures, featuring a high threshold error rate of approximately 1%, low overhead implementations of the entire Clifford group, and flexible, arbitrarily long-range logical gates. These highly desirable features come at the cost of significant classical processing complexity. We show how to perform the processing associated with an nxn lattice of qubits, each being manipulated in a realistic, fault-tolerant manner, in O(n^2) average time per round of error correction. Read More