A. Beck - The CLAS and Hall-A Collaborations

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A. Beck
The CLAS and Hall-A Collaborations

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Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (18)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (15)
Mathematics - Optimization and Control (6)
Nuclear Experiment (6)
Mathematics - Information Theory (4)
Computer Science - Information Theory (4)
Physics - Plasma Physics (4)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (3)
Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (3)
Physics - Space Physics (2)
Physics - Optics (2)
Physics - Accelerator Physics (2)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (2)
Physics - Computational Physics (2)
Nuclear Theory (2)
Physics - Materials Science (2)
High Energy Physics - Experiment (1)
Quantitative Biology - Quantitative Methods (1)
Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (1)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (1)

Publications Authored By A. Beck

The giant radio relic in CIZA J2242.8+5301 is likely evidence of a Mpc sized shock in a massive merging galaxy cluster. However, the exact shock properties are still not clearly determined. Read More

Alternating minimization, or Fienup methods, have a long history in phase retrieval. We provide new insights related to the empirical and theoretical analysis of these algorithms when used with Fourier measurements and combined with convex priors. In particular, we show that Fienup methods can be viewed as performing alternating minimization on a regularized nonconvex least-squares problem with respect to amplitude measurements. Read More

Diagnosis of breast carcinomas has so far been limited to the morphological interpretation of epithelial cells and the assessment of epithelial tissue architecture. Consequently, most of the automated systems have focused on characterizing the epithelial regions of the breast to detect cancer. In this paper, we propose a system for classification of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained breast specimens based on convolutional neural networks that primarily targets the assessment of tumor-associated stroma to diagnose breast cancer patients. Read More

SMILEI is a collaborative, open-source, object-oriented (C++) particle-in-cell code. To benefit from the latest advances in high-performance computing (HPC), SMILEI is co-developed by both physicists and HPC experts. The code's structures, capabilities, parallelization strategy and performances are discussed. Read More

The distribution of metals in the intracluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters provides valuable information on their formation and evolution, on the connection with the cosmic star formation and on the effects of different gas processes. By analyzing a sample of simulated galaxy clusters, we study the chemical enrichment of the ICM, its evolution, and its relation with the physical processes included in the simulation and with the thermal properties of the core. These simulations, consisting of re-simulations of 29 Lagrangian regions performed with an upgraded version of the SPH GADGET-3 code, have been run including two different sets of baryonic physics: one accounts for radiative cooling, star formation, metal enrichment and supernova (SN) feedback, and the other one further includes the effects of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). Read More

We analyze the radial pressure profiles, the ICM clumping factor and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) scaling relations of a sample of simulated galaxy clusters and groups identified in a set of hydrodynamical simulations based on an updated version of the TreePM-SPH GADGET-3 code. Three different sets of simulations are performed: the first assumes non-radiative physics, the others include, among other processes, AGN and/or stellar feedback. Our results are analyzed as a function of redshift, ICM physics, cluster mass and cluster cool-coreness or dynamical state. Read More

We analyze hydrodynamical and cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters to study scaling relations between the cluster total masses and observable quantities such as gas luminosity, gas mass, temperature, and YX , i.e., the product of the last two properties. Read More

The assessment of protein expression in immunohistochemistry (IHC) images provides important diagnostic, prognostic and predictive information for guiding cancer diagnosis and therapy. Manual scoring of IHC images represents a logistical challenge, as the process is labor intensive and time consuming. Since the last decade, computational methods have been developed to enable the application of quantitative methods for the analysis and interpretation of protein expression in IHC images. Read More

The International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) held a grand challenge to evaluate computational systems for the automated detection of metastatic breast cancer in whole slide images of sentinel lymph node biopsies. Our team won both competitions in the grand challenge, obtaining an area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) of 0.925 for the task of whole slide image classification and a score of 0. Read More

In this paper we investigate the level of hydrostatic equilibrium (HE) in the intra-cluster medium of simulated galaxy clusters, extracted from state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamical simulations performed with the Smoothed-Particle-Hydrodynamic code GADGET-3. These simulations include several physical processes, among which stellar and AGN feedback, and have been performed with an improved version of the code that allows for a better description of hydrodynamical instabilities and gas mixing processes. Evaluating the radial balance between the gravitational and hydrodynamical forces, via the gas accelerations generated, we effectively examine the level of HE in every object of the sample, its dependence on the radial distance from the center and on the classification of the cluster in terms of either cool-coreness or dynamical state. Read More

New data on pion-photoproduction off the proton have been included in the partial wave analyses Bonn-Gatchina and SAID and in the dynamical coupled-channel approach J\"ulich-Bonn. All reproduce the recent new data well: the double polarization data for E, G, H, P and T in $\gamma p \to \pi^0 p$ from ELSA, the beam asymmetry $\Sigma$ for $\gamma p \to \pi^0 p$ and $\pi^+ n$ from Jefferson Laboratory, and the precise new differential cross section and beam asymmetry data $\Sigma$ for $\gamma p \to \pi^0 p$ from MAMI. The new fit results for the multipoles are compared with predictions not taking into account the new data. Read More

We report on a strain-induced martensitic transformation, accompanied by a suppression of magnetic order in epitaxial films of chemically disordered FeRh. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and electronic structure calculations reveal that the lowering of symmetry (from cubic to tetragonal) imposed by the epitaxial relation leads to a further, unexpected, tetragonal-to-orthorhombic transition, triggered by a band-Jahn-Teller-type lattice instability. The collapse of magnetic order is a direct consequence of this structural change, which upsets the subtle balance between ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor interactions arising from Fe-Rh hybridization and frustrated antiferromagnetic coupling among localized Fe moments at larger distances. Read More

Building on the initial results of the nIFTy simulated galaxy cluster comparison, we compare and contrast the impact of baryonic physics with a single massive galaxy cluster, run with 11 state-of-the-art codes, spanning adaptive mesh, moving mesh, classic and modern SPH approaches. For each code represented we have a dark matter only (DM) and non-radiative (NR) version of the cluster, as well as a full physics (FP) version for a subset of the codes. We compare both radial mass and kinematic profiles, as well as global measures of the cluster (e. Read More

We present a model for the seeding and evolution of magnetic fields in galaxies by supernovae (SN). SN explosions during galaxy assembly provide seed fields, which are subsequently amplified by compression, shear flows and random motions. Our model explains the origin of microG magnetic fields within galactic structures. Read More

We examine subhaloes and galaxies residing in a simulated LCDM galaxy cluster ($M^{\rm crit}_{200}=1.1\times10^{15}M_\odot/h$) produced by hydrodynamical codes ranging from classic Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), newer SPH codes, adaptive and moving mesh codes. These codes use subgrid models to capture galaxy formation physics. Read More

We present an on-the-fly geometrical approach for shock detection and Mach number calculation in simulations employing smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). We utilize pressure gradients to select shock candidates and define up- and downstream positions. We obtain hydrodynamical states in the up- and downstream regimes with a series of normal and inverted kernel weightings parallel and perpendicular to the shock normals. Read More

In the wake of the intense effort made for the experimental CILEX project, numerical simulation cam- paigns have been carried out in order to finalize the design of the facility and to identify optimal laser and plasma parameters. These simulations bring, of course, important insight into the fundamental physics at play. As a by-product, they also characterize the quality of our theoretical and numerical models. Read More

We have simulated the formation of a massive galaxy cluster (M$_{200}^{\rm crit}$ = 1.1$\times$10$^{15}h^{-1}M_{\odot}$) in a $\Lambda$CDM universe using 10 different codes (RAMSES, 2 incarnations of AREPO and 7 of GADGET), modeling hydrodynamics with full radiative subgrid physics. These codes include Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), spanning traditional and advanced SPH schemes, adaptive mesh and moving mesh codes. Read More

By means of zoom-in hydrodynamic simulations we quantify the amount of neutral hydrogen (HI) hosted by groups and clusters of galaxies. Our simulations, which are based on an improved formulation of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), include radiative cooling, star formation, metal enrichment and supernova feedback, and can be split in two different groups, depending on whether feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is turned on or off. Simulations are analyzed to account for HI self-shielding and the presence of molecular hydrogen. Read More

We present results obtained from a set of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy clusters, aimed at comparing predictions with observational data on the diversity between cool-core (CC) and non-cool-core (NCC) clusters. Our simulations include the effects of stellar and AGN feedback and are based on an improved version of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code GADGET-3, which ameliorates gas mixing and better captures gas-dynamical instabilities by including a suitable artificial thermal diffusion. In this Letter, we focus our analysis on the entropy profiles, the primary diagnostic we used to classify the degree of cool-coreness of clusters, and on the iron profiles. Read More

In this study, the optoelectronic properties of a monolithically integrated series-connected tandem solar cell are simulated. Following the large success of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites, which have recently demonstrated large efficiencies with low production costs, we examine the possibility of using the same perovskites as absorbers in a tandem solar cell. The cell consists in a methylammonium mixed bromide-iodide lead perovskite, CH3NH3PbI3(1-x)Br3x (0 < x < 1), top sub-cell and a single-crystalline silicon bottom sub-cell. Read More

We report on new p$(e,e^\prime p)\pi^\circ$ measurements at the $\Delta^{+}(1232)$ resonance at the low momentum transfer region. The mesonic cloud dynamics is predicted to be dominant and rapidly changing in this kinematic region offering a test bed for chiral effective field theory calculations. The new data explore the low $Q^2$ dependence of the resonant quadrupole amplitudes while extending the measurements of the Coulomb quadrupole amplitude to the lowest momentum transfer ever reached. Read More

The use of optics in microelectronic circuits to overcome the limitation of metallic interconnects is more and more considered as a viable solution. Among future silicon compatible materials, carbon nanotubes are promising candidates thanks to their ability to emit, modulate and detect light in the wavelength range of silicon transparency. We report the first integration of carbon nanotubes with silicon waveguides, successfully coupling their emission and absorption properties. Read More

Sparse principal component analysis addresses the problem of finding a linear combination of the variables in a given data set with a sparse coefficients vector that maximizes the variability of the data. This model enhances the ability to interpret the principal components, and is applicable in a wide variety of fields including genetics and finance, just to name a few. We suggest a necessary coordinate-wise-based optimality condition, and show its superiority over the stationarity-based condition that is commonly used in the literature, and which is the basis for many of the algorithms designed to solve the problem. Read More

We consider the problem of minimizing a function, which is the sum of a linear function and a composition of a strongly convex function with a linear transformation, over a compact polyhedral set. Jaggi and Lacoste-Julien [14] showed that the conditional gradient method with away steps employed on the aforementioned problem without the additional linear term has linear rate of convergence, depending on the so-called pyramidal width of the feasible set. We revisit this result and provide a variant of the algorithm and an analysis that is based on simple duality arguments, as well as corresponding error bounds. Read More

We have simulated the formation of a galaxy cluster in a $\Lambda$CDM universe using twelve different codes modeling only gravity and non-radiative hydrodynamics (\art, \arepo, \hydra\ and 9 incarnations of GADGET). This range of codes includes particle based, moving and fixed mesh codes as well as both Eulerian and Lagrangian fluid schemes. The various GADGET implementations span traditional and advanced smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) schemes. Read More

The evolution and distribution of the angular momentum of dark matter (DM) halos have been discussed in several studies over the past decades. In particular, the idea arose that angular momentum conservation should allow to infer the total angular momentum of the entire DM halo from measuring the angular momentum of the baryonic component, which is populating the center of the halo, especially for disk galaxies. To test this idea and to understand the connection between the angular momentum of the DM halo and its galaxy, we use the Magneticum simulations. Read More

We present an implementation of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) with improved accuracy for simulations of galaxies and the large-scale structure. In particular, we combine, implement, modify and test a vast majority of SPH improvement techniques in the latest instalment of the GADGET code. We use the Wendland kernel functions, a particle wake-up time-step limiting mechanism and a time-dependent scheme for artificial viscosity, which includes a high-order gradient computation and shear flow limiter. Read More

In this paper we study the convex problem of optimizing the sum of a smooth function and a compactly supported non-smooth term with a specific separable form. We analyze the block version of the generalized conditional gradient method when the blocks are chosen in a cyclic order. A global sublinear rate of convergence is established for two different stepsize strategies commonly used in this class of methods. Read More

We present an implementation of thermal conduction including the anisotropic effects of magnetic fields for SPH. The anisotropic thermal conduction is mainly proceeding parallel to magnetic fields and suppressed perpendicular to the fields. We derive the SPH formalism for the anisotropic heat transport and solve the corresponding equation with an implicit conjugate gradient scheme. Read More

We present constraints on the origins of fast radio bursts (FRBs) using large cosmological simulations. We calculate contributions to FRB dispersion measures (DMs) from the Milky Way, from the local Universe, from cosmological large-scale structure, and from potential FRB host galaxies, and then compare these simulations to the DMs of observed FRBs. We find that the Milky Way contribution has previously been underestimated by a factor of ~2, and that the foreground-subtracted DMs are consistent with a cosmological origin, corresponding to a source population observable to a maximum redshift z~0. Read More

Authors: O. Hen, M. Sargsian, L. B. Weinstein, E. Piasetzky, H. Hakobyan, D. W. Higinbotham, M. Braverman, W. K. Brooks, S. Gilad, K. P. Adhikari, J. Arrington, G. Asryan, H. Avakian, J. Ball, N. A. Baltzell, M. Battaglieri, A. Beck, S. May-Tal Beck, I. Bedlinskiy, W. Bertozzi, A. Biselli, V. D. Burkert, T. Cao, D. S. Carman, A. Celentano, S. Chandavar, L. Colaneri, P. L. Cole, V. Crede, A. DAngelo, R. De Vita, A. Deur, C. Djalali, D. Doughty, M. Dugger, R. Dupre, H. Egiyan, A. El Alaoui, L. El Fassi, L. Elouadrhiri, G. Fedotov, S. Fegan, T. Forest, B. Garillon, M. Garcon, N. Gevorgyan, Y. Ghandilyan, G. P. Gilfoyle, F. X. Girod, J. T. Goetz, R. W. Gothe, K. A. Griffioen, M. Guidal, L. Guo, K. Hafidi, C. Hanretty, M. Hattawy, K. Hicks, M. Holtrop, C. E. Hyde, Y. Ilieva, D. G. Ireland, B. I. Ishkanov, E. L. Isupov, H. Jiang, H. S. Jo, K. Joo, D. Keller, M. Khandaker, A. Kim, W. Kim, F. J. Klein, S. Koirala, I. Korover, S. E. Kuhn, V. Kubarovsky, P. Lenisa, W. I. Levine, K. Livingston, M. Lowry, H. Y. Lu, I. J. D. MacGregor, N. Markov, M. Mayer, B. McKinnon, T. Mineeva, V. Mokeev, A. Movsisyan, C. Munoz Camacho, B. Mustapha, P. Nadel-Turonski, S. Niccolai, G. Niculescu, I. Niculescu, M. Osipenko, L. L. Pappalardo, R. Paremuzyan, K. Park, E. Pasyuk, W. Phelps, S. Pisano, O. Pogorelko, J. W. Price, S. Procureur, Y. Prok, D. Protopopescu, A. J. R. Puckett, D. Rimal, M. Ripani, B. G. Ritchie, A. Rizzo, G. Rosner, P. Rossi, P. Roy, F. Sabatie, D. Schott, R. A. Schumacher, Y. G. Sharabian, G. D. Smith, R. Shneor, D. Sokhan, S. S. Stepanyan, S. Stepanyan, P. Stoler, S. Strauch, V. Sytnik, M. Taiuti, S. Tkachenko, M. Ungaro, A. V. Vlassov, E. Voutier, D. Watts, N. K. Walford, X. Wei, M. H. Wood, S. A. Wood, N. Zachariou, L. Zana, Z. W. Zhao, X. Zheng, I. Zonta

The atomic nucleus is composed of two different kinds of fermions, protons and neutrons. If the protons and neutrons did not interact, the Pauli exclusion principle would force the majority fermions (usually neutrons) to have a higher average momentum. Our high-energy electron scattering measurements using 12C, 27Al, 56Fe and 208Pb targets show that, even in heavy neutron-rich nuclei, short-range interactions between the fermions form correlated high-momentum neutron-proton pairs. Read More

We extend the description of the isotropic and anisotropic random component of the small-scale magnetic field within the existing magnetic field model of the Milky Way from Jansson&Farrar, by including random realizations of the small-scale component. Using a magnetic-field power spectrum with Gaussian random fields, the NE2001 model for the thermal electrons and the Galactic cosmic-ray electron distribution from the current GALPROP model we derive full-sky maps for the total and polarized synchrotron intensity as well as the Faraday rotation-measure distribution. While previous work assumed that small-scale fluctuations average out along the line-of-sight or which only computed ensemble averages of random fields, we show that these fluctuations need to be carefully taken into account. Read More


We studied simultaneously the 4He(e,e'p), 4He(e,e'pp), and 4He(e,e'pn) reactions at Q^2=2 [GeV/c]2 and x_B>1, for a (e,e'p) missing-momentum range of 400 to 830 MeV/c. The knocked-out proton was detected in coincidence with a proton or neutron recoiling almost back to back to the missing momentum, leaving the residual A=2 system at low excitation energy. These data were used to identify two-nucleon short-range correlated pairs and to deduce their isospin structure as a function of missing momentum in a region where the nucleon-nucleon force is expected to change from predominantly tensor to repulsive. Read More

We consider algorithms and recovery guarantees for the analysis sparse model in which the signal is sparse with respect to a highly coherent frame. We consider the use of a monotone version of the fast iterative shrinkage- thresholding algorithm (MFISTA) to solve the analysis sparse recovery problem. Since the proximal operator in MFISTA does not have a closed-form solution for the analysis model, it cannot be applied directly. Read More

We present a model for the seeding and evolution of magnetic fields in protogalaxies. Supernova (SN) explosions during the assembly of a protogalaxy provide magnetic seed fields, which are subsequently amplified by compression, shear flows and random motions. We implement the model into the MHD version of the cosmological N-body / SPH simulation code GADGET and we couple the magnetic seeding directly to the underlying multi-phase description of star formation. Read More

Authors: I. Pomerantz1, Y. Ilieva2, R. Gilman3, D. W. Higinbotham4, E. Piasetzky5, S. Strauch6, K. P. Adhikari7, M. Aghasyan8, K. Allada9, M. J. Amaryan10, S. Anefalos Pereira11, M. Anghinolfi12, H. Baghdasaryan13, J. Ball14, N. A. Baltzell15, M. Battaglieri16, V. Batourine17, A. Beck18, S. Beck19, I. Bedlinskiy20, B. L. Berman21, A. S. Biselli22, W. Boeglin23, J. Bono24, C. Bookwalter25, S. Boiarinov26, W. J. Briscoe27, W. K. Brooks28, N. Bubis29, V. Burkert30, A. Camsonne31, M. Canan32, D. S. Carman33, A. Celentano34, S. Chandavar35, G. Charles36, K. Chirapatpimol37, E. Cisbani38, P. L. Cole39, M. Contalbrigo40, V. Crede41, F. Cusanno42, A. D'Angelo43, A. Daniel44, N. Dashyan45, C. W. de Jager46, R. De Vita47, E. De Sanctis48, A. Deur49, C. Djalali50, G. E. Dodge51, D. Doughty52, R. Dupre53, C. Dutta54, H. Egiyan55, A. El Alaoui56, L. El Fassi57, P. Eugenio58, G. Fedotov59, S. Fegan60, J. A. Fleming61, A. Fradi62, F. Garibaldi63, O. Geagla64, N. Gevorgyan65, K. L. Giovanetti66, F. X. Girod67, J. Glister68, J. T. Goetz69, W. Gohn70, E. Golovatch71, R. W. Gothe72, K. A. Griffioen73, B. Guegan74, M. Guidal75, L. Guo76, K. Hafidi77, H. Hakobyan78, N. Harrison79, D. Heddle80, K. Hicks81, D. Ho82, M. Holtrop83, C. E. Hyde84, D. G. Ireland85, B. S. Ishkhanov86, E. L. Isupov87, X. Jiang88, H. S. Jo89, K. Joo90, A. T. Katramatou91, D. Keller92, M. Khandaker93, P. Khetarpal94, E. Khrosinkova95, A. Kim96, W. Kim97, F. J. Klein98, S. Koirala99, A. Kubarovsky100, V. Kubarovsky101, S. V. Kuleshov102, N. D. Kvaltine103, B. Lee104, J. J. LeRose105, S. Lewis106, R. Lindgren107, K. Livingston108, H. Y. Lu109, I. J. D. MacGregor110, Y. Mao111, D. Martinez112, M. Mayer113, E. McCullough114, B. McKinnon115, D. Meekins116, C. A. Meyer117, R. Michaels118, T. Mineeva119, M. Mirazita120, B. Moffit121, V. Mokeev122, R. A. Montgomery123, H. Moutarde124, E. Munevar125, C. Munoz Camacho126, P. Nadel-Turonski127, R. Nasseripour128, C. S. Nepali129, S. Niccolai130, G. Niculescu131, I. Niculescu132, M. Osipenko133, A. I. Ostrovidov134, L. L. Pappalardo135, R. Paremuzyan136, K. Park137, S. Park138, G. G. Petratos139, E. Phelps140, S. Pisano141, O. Pogorelko142, S. Pozdniakov143, S. Procureur144, D. Protopopescu145, A. J. R. Puckett146, X. Qian147, Y. Qiang148, G. Ricco149, D. Rimal150, M. Ripani151, B. G. Ritchie152, I. Rodriguez153, G. Ron154, G. Rosner155, P. Rossi156, F. Sabatie157, A. Saha158, M. S. Saini159, A. J. Sarty160, B. Sawatzky161, N. A. Saylor162, D. Schott163, E. Schulte164, R. A. Schumacher165, E. Seder166, H. Seraydaryan167, R. Shneor168, G. D. Smith169, D. Sokhan170, N. Sparveris171, S. S. Stepanyan172, S. Stepanyan173, P. Stoler174, R. Subedi175, V. Sulkosky176, M. Taiuti177, W. Tang178, C. E. Taylor179, S. Tkachenko180, M. Ungaro181, B. Vernarsky182, M. F. Vineyard183, H. Voskanyan184, E. Voutier185, N. K. Walford186, Y. Wang187, D. P. Watts188, L. B. Weinstein189, D. P. Weygand190, B. Wojtsekhowski191, M. H. Wood192, X. Yan193, H. Yao194, N. Zachariou195, X. Zhan196, J. Zhang197, Z. W. Zhao198, X. Zheng199, I. Zonta200
Affiliations: 1The CLAS and Hall-A Collaborations, 2The CLAS and Hall-A Collaborations, 3The CLAS and Hall-A Collaborations, 4The CLAS and Hall-A Collaborations, 5The CLAS and Hall-A Collaborations, 6The CLAS and Hall-A Collaborations, 7The CLAS and Hall-A Collaborations, 8The CLAS and Hall-A Collaborations, 9The CLAS and Hall-A Collaborations, 10The CLAS and Hall-A Collaborations, 11The CLAS and Hall-A Collaborations, 12The CLAS and Hall-A Collaborations, 13The CLAS and Hall-A Collaborations, 14The CLAS and Hall-A Collaborations, 15The CLAS and Hall-A Collaborations, 16The CLAS and Hall-A Collaborations, 17The CLAS and Hall-A Collaborations, 18The CLAS and Hall-A Collaborations, 19The CLAS and Hall-A Collaborations, 20The CLAS and Hall-A Collaborations, 21The CLAS and Hall-A Collaborations, 22The CLAS and Hall-A Collaborations, 23The CLAS and Hall-A Collaborations, 24The CLAS and Hall-A Collaborations, 25The CLAS and Hall-A Collaborations, 26The CLAS and Hall-A Collaborations, 27The 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We have measured cross sections for the gamma+3He->p+d reaction at photon energies of 0.4 - 1.4 GeV and a center-of-mass angle of 90 deg. Read More

Relativistic interaction of short-pulse lasers with underdense plasmas has recently led to the emergence of a novel generation of femtosecond x-ray sources. Based on radiation from electrons accelerated in plasma, these sources have the common properties to be compact and to deliver collimated, incoherent and femtosecond radiation. In this article we review, within a unified formalism, the betatron radiation of trapped and accelerated electrons in the so-called bubble regime, the synchrotron radiation of laser-accelerated electrons in usual meter-scale undulators, the nonlinear Thomson scattering from relativistic electrons oscillating in an intense laser field, and the Thomson backscattered radiation of a laser beam by laser-accelerated electrons. Read More

We consider the problem of phase retrieval, namely, recovery of a signal from the magnitude of its Fourier transform, or of any other linear transform. Due to the loss of the Fourier phase information, this problem is ill-posed. Therefore, prior information on the signal is needed in order to enable its recovery. Read More

We study the possible magnetization of cosmic voids by void galaxies. Recently, observations revealed isolated starforming galaxies within the voids. Furthermore, a major fraction of a voids volume is expected to be filled with magnetic fields of a minimum strength of about $10^{-15}$ G on Mpc scales. Read More

Authors: The HAPPEX, PREX Collaborations, :, S. Abrahamyan, A. Acha, A. Afanasev, Z. Ahmed, H. Albataineh, K. Aniol, D. S. Armstrong, W. Armstrong, J. Arrington, T. Averett, B. Babineau, S. L. Bailey, J. Barber, A. Barbieri, A. Beck, V. Bellini, R. Beminiwattha, H. Benaoum, J. Benesch, F. Benmokhtar, P. Bertin, T. Bielarski, W. Boeglin, P. Bosted, F. Butaru, E. Burtin, J. Cahoon, A. Camsonne, M. Canan, P. Carter, C. C. Chang, G. D. Cates, Y. C. Chao, C. Chen, J. P. Chen, Seonho Choi, E. Chudakov, E. Cisbani, B. Craver, F. Cusanno, M. M. Dalton, R. De Leo, K. de Jager, W. Deconinck, P. Decowski, D. Deepa, X. Deng, A. Deur, D. Dutta, A. Etile, C. Ferdi, R. J. Feuerbach, J. M. Finn, D. Flay, G. B. Franklin, M. Friend, S. Frullani, E. Fuchey, S. A. Fuchs, K. Fuoti, F. Garibaldi, E. Gasser, R. Gilman, A. Giusa, A. Glamazdin, L. E. Glesener, J. Gomez, M. Gorchtein, J. Grames, K. Grimm, C. Gu, O. Hansen, J. Hansknecht, O. Hen, D. W. Higinbotham, R. S. Holmes, T. Holmstrom, C. J. Horowitz, J. Hoskins, J. Huang, T. B. Humensky, C. E. Hyde, H. Ibrahim, F. Itard, C. M. Jen, E. Jensen, X. Jiang, G. Jin, S. Johnston, J. Katich, L. J. Kaufman, A. Kelleher, K. Kliakhandler, P. M. King, A. Kolarkar, S. Kowalski, E. Kuchina, K. S. Kumar, L. Lagamba, D. Lambert, P. LaViolette, J. Leacock, J. Leckey IV, J. H. Lee, J. J. LeRose, D. Lhuillier, R. Lindgren, N. Liyanage, N. Lubinsky, J. Mammei, F. Mammoliti, D. J. Margaziotis, P. Markowitz, M. Mazouz, K. McCormick, A. McCreary, D. McNulty, D. G. Meekins, L. Mercado, Z. E. Meziani, R. W. Michaels, M. Mihovilovic, B. Moffit, P. Monaghan, N. Muangma, C. Munoz-Camacho, S. Nanda, V. Nelyubin, D. Neyret, Nuruzzaman, Y. Oh, K. Otis, A. Palmer, D. Parno, K. D. Paschke, S. K. Phillips, M. Poelker, R. Pomatsalyuk, M. Posik, M. Potokar, K. Prok, A. J. R. Puckett, X. Qian, Y. Qiang, B. Quinn, A. Rakhman, P. E. Reimer, B. Reitz, S. Riordan, J. Roche, P. Rogan, G. Ron, G. Russo, K. Saenboonruang, A. Saha, B. Sawatzky, A. Shahinyan, R. Silwal, J. Singh, S. Sirca, K. Slifer, R. Snyder, P. Solvignon, P. A. Souder, M. L. Sperduto, R. Subedi, M. L. Stutzman, R. Suleiman, V. Sulkosky, C. M. Sutera, W. A. Tobias, W. Troth, G. M. Urciuoli, P. Ulmer, A. Vacheret, E. Voutier, B. Waidyawansa, D. Wang, K. Wang, J. Wexler, A. Whitbeck, R. Wilson, B. Wojtsekhowski, X. Yan, H. Yao, Y. Ye, Z. Ye, V. Yim, L. Zana, X. Zhan, J. Zhang, Y. Zhang, X. Zheng, V. Ziskin, P. Zhu

We have measured the beam-normal single-spin asymmetry $A_n$ in the elastic scattering of 1-3 GeV transversely polarized electrons from $^1$H and for the first time from $^4$He, $^{12}$C, and $^{208}$Pb. For $^1$H, $^4$He and $^{12}$C, the measurements are in agreement with calculations that relate $A_n$ to the imaginary part of the two-photon exchange amplitude including inelastic intermediate states. Surprisingly, the $^{208}$Pb result is significantly smaller than the corresponding prediction using the same formalism. Read More

NASA's Dawn spacecraft observations of asteroid (4) Vesta reveal a surface with the highest albedo and color variation of any asteroid we have observed so far. Terrains rich in low albedo dark material (DM) have been identified using Dawn Framing Camera (FC) 0.75 {\mu}m filter images in several geologic settings: associated with impact craters (in the ejecta blanket material and/or on the crater walls and rims); as flow-like deposits or rays commonly associated with topographic highs; and as dark spots (likely secondary impacts) nearby impact craters. Read More

We present simulations of the compact galaxy group Stephan's Quintet (SQ) including magnetic fields, performed with the N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code \textsc{Gadget}. The simulations include radiative cooling, star formation and supernova feedback. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is implemented using the standard smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD) method. Read More

In magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), the magnetic field is evolved by the induction equation and coupled to the gas dynamics by the Lorentz force. We perform numerical smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (Spmhd) simulations and study the influence of a numerical magnetic divergence. For instabilities arising from divergence B related errors, we find the hyperbolic/parabolic cleaning scheme suggested by Dedner et al. Read More

Electron self-injection and acceleration until dephasing in the blowout regime is studied for a set of initial conditions typical of recent experiments with 100 terawatt-class lasers. Two different approaches to computationally efficient, fully explicit, three-dimensional particle-in-cell modelling are examined. First, the Cartesian code VORPAL using a perfect-dispersion electromagnetic solver precisely describes the laser pulse and bubble dynamics, taking advantage of coarser resolution in the propagation direction, with a proportionally larger time step. Read More

This paper treats the problem of minimizing a general continuously differentiable function subject to sparsity constraints. We present and analyze several different optimality criteria which are based on the notions of stationarity and coordinate-wise optimality. These conditions are then used to derive three numerical algorithms aimed at finding points satisfying the resulting optimality criteria: the iterative hard thresholding method and the greedy and partial sparse-simplex methods. Read More

An analytical model predicting the growth rates, the absolute growth times and the saturation values of the magnetic field strength within galactic haloes is presented. The analytical results are compared to cosmological MHD simulations of Milky-Way like galactic halo formation performed with the N-body / \textsc{Spmhd} code \textsc{Gadget}. The halo has a mass of $\approx{}3\cdot{}10^{12}$ $M_{\odot}$ and a virial radius of $\approx{}$270 kpc. Read More

A novel adaptive technique for electromagnetic Particle In Cell (PIC) plasma simulations is presented here. Two main issues are identified in designing adaptive techniques for PIC simulation: first, the choice of the size of the particle shape function in progressively refined grids, with the need to avoid the exertion of self-forces on particles, and, second, the necessity to comply with the strict stability constraints of the explicit PIC algorithm. The adaptive implementation presented responds to these demands with the introduction of a Multi Level Multi Domain (MLMD) system (where a cloud of self-similar domains is fully simulated with both fields and particles) and the use of an Implicit Moment PIC method as baseline algorithm for the adaptive evolution. Read More

Authors: The LBNE Collaboration, T. Akiri, D. Allspach, M. Andrews, K. Arisaka, E. Arrieta-Diaz, M. Artuso, X. Bai, B. Balantekin, B. Baller, W. Barletta, G. Barr, M. Bass, A. Beck, B. Becker, V. Bellini, O. Benhar, B. Berger, M. Bergevin, E. Berman, H. Berns, A. Bernstein, F. Beroz, V. Bhatnagar, B. Bhuyan, R. Bionta, M. Bishai, A. Blake, E. Blaufuss, B. Bleakley, E. Blucher, S. Blusk, D. Boehnlein, T. Bolton, J. Brack, R. Bradford, R. Breedon, C. Bromberg, R. Brown, N. Buchanan, L. Camilleri, M. Campbell, R. Carr, G. Carminati, A. Chen, H. Chen, D. Cherdack, C. Chi, S. Childress, B. Choudhary, E. Church, D. Cline, S. Coleman, R. Corey, M. D'Agostino, G. Davies, S. Dazeley, J. De Jong, B. DeMaat, D. Demuth, A. Dighe, Z. Djurcic, J. Dolph, G. Drake, A. Drozhdin, H. Duan, H. Duyang, S. Dye, T. Dykhuis, D. Edmunds, S. Elliott, S. Enomoto, C. Escobar, J. Felde, F. Feyzi, B. Fleming, J. Fowler, W. Fox, A. Friedland, B. Fujikawa, H. Gallagher, G. Garilli, G. Garvey, V. Gehman, G. Geronimo, R. Gill, M. Goodman, J. Goon, D. Gorbunov, R. Gran, V. Guarino, E. Guarnaccia, R. Guenette, P. Gupta, A. Habig, R. Hackenberg, A. Hahn, R. Hahn, T. Haines, S. Hans, J. Harton, S. Hays, E. Hazen, Q. He, A. Heavey, K. Heeger, R. Hellauer, A. Himmel, G. Horton-Smith, J. Howell, P. Huber, P. Hurh, J. Huston, J. Hylen, J. Insler, D. Jaffe, C. James, C. Johnson, M. Johnson, R. Johnson, W. Johnson, W. Johnston, J. Johnstone, B. Jones, H. Jostlein, T. Junk, S. Junnarkar, R. Kadel, T. Kafka, D. Kaminski, G. Karagiorgi, A. Karle, J. Kaspar, T. Katori, B. Kayser, E. Kearns, S. Kettell, F. Khanam, J. Klein, J. Kneller, G. Koizumi, J. Kopp, S. Kopp, W. Kropp, V. Kudryavtsev, A. Kumar, J. Kumar, T. Kutter, T. Lackowski, K. Lande, C. Lane, K. Lang, F. Lanni, R. Lanza, T. Latorre, J. Learned, D. Lee, K. Lee, Y. Li, S. Linden, J. Ling, J. Link, L. Littenberg, L. Loiacono, T. Liu, J. Losecco, W. Louis, P. Lucas, C. Lunardini, B. Lundberg, T. Lundin, D. Makowiecki, S. Malys, S. Mandal, A. Mann, A. Mann, P. Mantsch, W. Marciano, C. Mariani, J. Maricic, A. Marino, M. Marshak, R. Maruyama, J. Mathews, S. Matsuno, C. Mauger, E. McCluskey, K. McDonald, K. McFarland, R. McKeown, R. McTaggart, R. Mehdiyev, W. Melnitchouk, Y. Meng, B. Mercurio, M. Messier, W. Metcalf, R. Milincic, W. Miller, G. Mills, S. Mishra, S. MoedSher, D. Mohapatra, N. Mokhov, C. Moore, J. Morfin, W. Morse, A. Moss, S. Mufson, J. Musser, D. Naples, J. Napolitano, M. Newcomer, B. Norris, S. Ouedraogo, B. Page, S. Pakvasa, J. Paley, V. Paolone, V. Papadimitriou, Z. Parsa, K. Partyka, Z. Pavlovic, C. Pearson, S. Perasso, R. Petti, R. Plunkett, C. Polly, S. Pordes, R. Potenza, A. Prakash, O. Prokofiev, X. Qian, J. Raaf, V. Radeka, R. Raghavan, R. Rameika, B. Rebel, S. Rescia, D. Reitzner, M. Richardson, K. Riesselman, M. Robinson, M. Rosen, C. Rosenfeld, R. Rucinski, T. Russo, S. Sahijpal, S. Salon, N. Samios, M. Sanchez, R. Schmitt, D. Schmitz, J. Schneps, K. Scholberg, S. Seibert, F. Sergiampietri, M. Shaevitz, P. Shanahan, M. Shaposhnikov, R. Sharma, N. Simos, V. Singh, G. Sinnis, W. Sippach, T. Skwarnicki, M. Smy, H. Sobel, M. Soderberg, J. Sondericker, W. Sondheim, J. Spitz, N. Spooner, M. Stancari, I. Stancu, J. Stewart, P. Stoler, J. Stone, S. Stone, J. Strait, T. Straszheim, S. Striganov, G. Sullivan, R. Svoboda, B. Szczerbinska, A. Szelc, R. Talaga, H. Tanaka, R. Tayloe, D. Taylor, J. Thomas, L. Thompson, M. Thomson, C. Thorn, X. Tian, W. Toki, N. Tolich, M. Tripathi, M. Trovato, H. Tseung, M. Tzanov, J. Urheim, S. Usman, M. Vagins, R. Van Berg, R. Van de Water, G. Varner, K. Vaziri, G. Velev, B. Viren, T. Wachala, C. Walter, H. Wang, Z. Wang, D. Warner, D. Webber, A. Weber, R. Wendell, C. Wendt, M. Wetstein, H. White, S. White, L. Whitehead, W. Willis, R. J. Wilson, L. Winslow, J. Ye, M. Yeh, B. Yu, G. Zeller, C. Zhang, E. Zimmerman, R. Zwaska

In early 2010, the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) science collaboration initiated a study to investigate the physics potential of the experiment with a broad set of different beam, near- and far-detector configurations. Nine initial topics were identified as scientific areas that motivate construction of a long-baseline neutrino experiment with a very large far detector. We summarize the scientific justification for each topic and the estimated performance for a set of far detector reference configurations. Read More